INSTRUMENTATION

Rotating Cu-anode (line source) Rigaku TTRAX III (18kW) theta-theta vertical diffractometer equipped with Cross Beam Optics (CBO)

Enables a configuration with Bragg-Brentano or parallel beam optics; Euler cradle; and (optionally) a thin film attachment including a Ge (220) channel-cut monochromator for high-resolution measurements; scintillation counter or solid-state strip X-ray detector **Mythen 1K (Dectris Ltd., Switzerland),  and a video camera for sample alignment. Data acquisition is computer controlled and data analysis is performed with Jade9.5 software. Search/match protocols use the updated Powder Diffraction File (PDF-4+) of the ICDD (International Center for Diffraction Data) on CD-rom and the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD, FIZ, Karlsruhe). In addition, laboratory users have access to the Cambridge Structural Database System (CSDS) for organic compounds.


Note that TTRAX III is the only diffractometer of its kind manufactured today – i.e. an 18kW rotating-anode, vertical, theta-theta diffractometer,  which makes it possible to characterize a horizontally mounted sample. The WIS instrument is the only one of its kind in Israel and Europe; there are a few in the US. Its high intensity X-ray beam and high-quality X-ray optics allow us to obtain good powder diffraction patterns from gold films as thin as 2 nm. Another example of the extraordinary capabilities of this instrument is the high-quality XRD patterns obtained in transmission geometry from inorganic membranes with a thickness of half a micron and a lateral size of 200 microns.

Sealed Cu-anode tube (line source) Rigaku ULTIMA III (2kW) theta-theta vertical diffractometer equipped with CBO

Enables configuration of Bragg-Brentano or parallel beam optics; automatic 6-sample changer; and (optionally) a low-medium variable temperature sample holder (from -180° to 300° C); capillary mount; scintillation counter or solid-state strip detector **Mythen 1K. Data acquisition is computer controlled and data analysis is performed with Jade9.5 software. Search/match protocols use the updated Powder Diffraction File (PDF-4+) of the ICDD (International Center for Diffraction Data) on CD-rom and the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD, FIZ, Karlsruhe). In addition, laboratory users have access to the Cambridge Structural Database System (CSDS) for organic compounds.


**A high-speed, high sensitivity, high-resolution Mythen 1K solid-state strip X-ray detector has recently been acquired. It provides XRD profiles with high angular resolution (0.01° in 2-theta). Simultaneous X-ray counting in a two-theta range of 12.5 degrees markedly reduces the turn-around time for heavy diffractometer use The Mythen detector can be used in conjunction with the existing variable temperature attachment in order to avoid long data acquisition times at low and high temperatures, which may cause sample damage. Use of this detector also allows us to acquire reciprocal lattice mapping within a reasonable length of time: this can be of great assistance when searching for small single crystals distributed in an amorphous matrix.

Wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) camera

The wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) camera using double Franks mirrors to produce a quasi-parallel X-ray beam of 300 µm diameter. The camera is affixed to a point X-ray source (RHS) provided by a Rigaku RU200 rotating Cu-anode generator (12kW) and is equipped with a gas-filled, 1D linear position-sensitive  detector or image plate for 2D pattern detection. This instrument is used for acquiring 2D diffraction patterns of polymer fibers / composites and for double exposure back Laue patterns of single crystals. 

WAXS setup using a Kumakhov polycapillary lens

Produces a high-intensity, convergent X-ray beam focusing to 30 µm in the focal plane. The setup is affixed to a  point X-ray source (LHS) formed by a RU200 rotating Cu-anode generator (12kW) and equipped with a gas-filled, 1D linear position-sensitive  detector or image plate for 2D pattern detection. Possible applications include characterizing the two-dimensional heterogeneity of both biological and inorganic samples as well as determining crystallite size in the submicron range.