You are here


AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometer) System

The Dangoor REsearch Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (D-REAMS) is a dedicated carbon-only AMS system, built by National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC). It is based on the 1.5SDH Pelletron, operating at 460 keV. The machine was installed at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel, in January–February 2013, and passed the acceptance test on March 2013. Since then, over 4800 samples have been successfully measured.


Schematic layout of the D-REAMS systemThe D-REAMS system










Selected papers:

Regev, L., et al. 2016. D-REAMS: A New Compact AMS System for Radiocarbon Measurements at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. Radiocarbon.



Sample Preparation Laboratory

Different samples require different pre-treatment procedure prior radiocarbon dating. From the standard ABA treatment for charred samples, collagen extraction for bones or cellulose extraction for plants, and to sample-specific treatment due to poor preservation state or unique contaminants. Moreover, we focus on the development of new pre-treatment procedures for challenging materials (such as phytoliths, ash, plaster, small sample size and more). The pre-treatment is followed by graphitization.


Pre-treatment laboratoryThe graphitization system










Selected papers:

Yizhaq, M., et al. 2005. Quality controlled radiocarbon dating of bones and charcoal from the early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) of Motza (Israel). Radiocarbon47(02): 193-206.

Rebollo, N. R., et al. 2008. Structural Characterization of Charcoal Exposed to High and Low Ph: Implications for 14 C Sample Preparation and Charcoal Preservation. Radiocarbon50(2): 289-307.‏

Regev, L., et al. 2011. Radiocarbon concentrations of wood ash calcite: potential for dating. Radiocarbon53(01): 117-127.‏

Asscher, Y., et al. 2017. A new method for extracting the insoluble occluded carbon in archaeological and modern phytoliths: Detection of 14C depleted carbon fraction and implications for radiocarbon dating. Journal of Archaeological Science78: 57-65.‏

Toffolo, M. B., et al. 2017. Accurate Radiocarbon Dating of Archaeological Ash Using Pyrogenic Aragonite. Radiocarbon59(1), 231-249.‏

Goldenberg, L., et al. 2017. Dating Reassembled Collagen from Fossil Bones. Radiocarbon 59(5): 1487-1496.



Material Characterization Laboratory

Material characterization is essential in two levels: First, the sample itself. As most of our samples were buried for thousands of years, modes of preservation, degradation, and contamination influence the decision of suitable pre-treatment and even whether to date the sample at all. Second, in order to verify the relevance of an archaeological sample to its presumed context, micro-archaeological analytical tools should sometimes be used. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectrometer is used for materials identification and characterization, and various microscopes are used for petrography, micromorphology, and more.


iS5 FTIR and hydraulic sample press







* This laboratory is joined with the Kimmel Center for Archaeological Science.


Selected papers:

Poduska, K. M., et al. 2012. Plaster characterization at the PPNB site of Yiftahel (Israel) including the use of 14C: implications for plaster production, preservation, and dating. Radiocarbon, 54(3-4): 887-896.‏

Regev, J., et al. 2014. Wiggle-matched 14C chronology of Early Bronze Megiddo and the synchronization of Egyptian and Levantine chronologies. Egypt and the Levant24: 243-66.

Asscher, Y., et al. 2015. Absolute dating of the Late Bronze to Iron Age transition and the appearance of Philistine Culture in Qubur el-Walaydah, southern Levant. Radiocarbon57(1): 77-97.‏



Tree-Rings and Botanical Remains Laboratory

Trees and seeds bear valuable climatic and chronological data. We work on local plants, modern and archaeological, in order to expand the knowledge on past climate, plant domestication, tree growth patterns, and more. The lab is fully equipped for extracting cores from fresh and dry wood, their preparation and analysis, as well as wood and seeds identification and morphometric studies.


'Dendro station' equipped with micrometer sliding stage, Leica M80 binocular, and the Tellervo softwareWSL Lab-Microtome 








Selected papers:

Caracuta, V., et al. 2015. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant. Scientific reports5: 14370.

Caracuta, V., et al. 2016. Charred wood remains in the natufian sequence of el-Wad terrace (Israel): New insights into the climatic, environmental and cultural changes at the end of the Pleistocene. Quaternary Science Reviews131: 20-32.‏

Castagneri, D., et al. 2017. Xylem anatomical traits reveal different strategies of two Mediterranean oaks to cope with drought and warming. Environmental and Experimental Botany133: 128-138.‏

Ehrlich, Y., et al. 2017. Radiocarbon Dating of an Olive Tree Cross-Section: New Insights on Growth Patterns and Implications for Age Estimation of Olive Trees. Frontiers in Plant Science 8(1918).




Dangoor Education - the Exilarch Foundation opens in a new windowThe DANGOOR Research Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (D-REAMS) Laboratory was established by the Exilarch Foundation in November 2012.