Particle Physics and Astrophysics
Eli Waxman, Head
The Max Planck Professorial Chair of Quantum Physics
The Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics is composed of several groups which have inter-related research directions. In Experimental Physics, we have groups in Heavy Ions, High Energy Physics, Molecular Physics, Nuclear Physics, Observational Astrophysics, Particle-Astrophysics, Plasma Physics and Radiation Detection. In Theoretical Physics, we have activities in Astrophysics, Field Theory, Many Body Theory, Particle Physics and Quantum Mechanics. The various activities are grouped below into three sub-groups: I. Experimental Physics, II. Theoretical Physics, and III. Theoretical, Observational & Experimental Astrophysics.
I. Experimental PhysicsHeavy Ions: the PHENIX and CERES Experiments The Weizmann Institute heavy ion group includes Alexander Milov, Ilia Ravinovich and Itzhak Tserruya. The activities led by Itzhak Tserruya are focused on the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. RHIC is dedicated to the study of QCD and in particular high density QCD via heavy-ion collisions at energies up to vsNN= 200 GeV. PHENIX was designed to measure all potential signatures of the phase transition leading to deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration expected to take place in these collisions. Capitalizing on the experience gained with the CERES experiment and to further investigate the enhancement of low-mass electron-positron pairs discovored by CERES, the group in PHENIX is particularly interested in the measurement of low-mass dileptons including the low-mass vector mesons, via their decay into electron-positron pairs, which are sensitive probes of chiral symmetry restoration. The group has developed a novel Hadron Blind Detector (HBD) as an upgrade of the PHENIX detector for the measurement of low-mass electron pairs at RHIC. The HBD is now installed in PHENIX and first physics data were collected in the RHIC run of 2009. In addition to that, the group is responsible for the innermost set of pad chambers, called PC1, that are essential elements of the charged particle tracking system.
The activities led by Alexander Milov are focussed on the heavy-ion program of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC (Large hadron Collider) that is just starting operations at CERN. The main initial goal is to investigate the QGP under the new regime of higher energy density available at LHC and to concentrate on global observables to assess whether under such new conditions the QGP beahves like at RHIC or whether it exhibits new properties unseen at lower energies. The first proton-proton collisions presently being collected allow us to learn about the performance of the ATLAS detector and optimize the analysis techniques which will be applied in future studies. Among the highest priorities for the group is to improve the detector performance at very low momentum which is crucial to analyze the bulk particle production in heavy ion collisions when the first heavy ion data are collected at the end of 2010.
High Energy Physics: The ATLAS Experiment The ATLAS group includes Ehud Duchovni, Eilam Gross, Daniel Lellouch, Giora Mikenberg, Meir Shua and Vladimir Smakhtin. Our main analysis interests are focused on the understanding of the ATLAS detector and on analyzing its first data. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) situated at CERN - Geneva, concluded a very successful run with proton beams of 3.5TeV each, in which an integrated luminosity of approximately 50pb-1 was recorded. The ATLAS detector performed extremely well and recorded, with unprecedented accuracy, the outcome of ~45pb-1 pp collisions. An attempt to consolidate the understanding of ATLAS performance is at the center of few of our ongoing studies. In parallel, members of the group are engaged in searches for the elusive Higgs boson, for first hints of Supersymmetry existence, and in studies of the substructure of ultra energetic jets. Our hardware contribution to the ATLAS experiment, namely the Thin Gap Chamber system, which accounts for a significant part of ATLAS's capability to trigger on muons, is functioning excellently. Based on this success, the group is in the midst of an ambitious R&D aimed at converting the present trigger device into a trigger and tracking device for the harsh environment of the super-LHC.
Molecular Ion Quantum Dynamics
Led by Daniel Zajfman, the group works in the field of molecular astrophysics, ion trapping, cluster physics, nanosecond and femtosecond laser and electron induced processes. Experiments are being carried out both at the ion trap laboratory at the Weizmann Institute, and at the Test Storage Ring, located at the Max-Planck Institut, Heidelberg, Germany. The experiments study the internal dynamics of few body quantum systems.
Led by Michael Hass, the group also includes Gvirol Goldring. Measurements are carried out in two major areas: a) Nuclear Structure and electromagnetic moments in nuclei with extreme values of isospin as exist far from the valley of stability. At the REX-ISOLDE (CERN), GANIL (France) and GSI (Germany) centers the group uses various production means to reach such exotic nuclei and measure the electromagnetic moments of ground states and isomeric states. b) Nuclear-astrophysics experiments such as measurement at the 3 MV VDG accelerator of the 7 Be(p,GRgamma)8B and 3He(4He,GRgamma)7Be cross sections that are essential for understanding the issues of solar-neutrino oscillations and mass and are connected to Big-Bang Nuclear-Synthesis. The group is also involved in measurements of nuclear reactions devoted to the understanding of explosive nucleo-synthesis scenarios that occur in, e.g., x-ray bursts and supervovae.
A new developing activity is the initiative to work with radioactive beams in Israel. Such nuclear structure and astrophysics measurements may become possible in the near future with the completion of Phase-I of the high-current, 40 MeV, proton and deuteron accelerator, SARAF, at Soreq. The possibilities with the SARAF are strongly coupled to planned activities at the next-generation, SPIRAL-II facility at GANIL(France),to utilize light radioactive like 14O, 15O, 18Ne and 6He for basic research in nuclear astrophysics of explosive phenomena (see above) and neutrino physics . This part is in collaboration with Dr.Dan Berkovits and Dr. Israel Mardor (Soreq Nuclear Research Centre).
6He and 8Li radioactive nuclei can also be produced at the Weizmann Institute Laboratory by using the newly-purchased neutron generator that employs the D+T reaction to provide high fluxes of 14 MeV neutrons. Such beams will be utilized for precision studies of Fundamental Interactions in the GRbeta-decay process by directing the respective ions into an Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap (EIBT) and measuring the decay products in the trap. Such studies are aimed at providing unique precision results that may demonstrate "New Physics" that is beyond the present Standard Model of elementary particles and interactions. This program is in close collaboration with the group of Prof. Daniel Zajfman and Dr. Oded Heber.
The Plasma Laboratory pursues investigations of high-energy-density plasmas, driven by intense current pulses or intense laser radiation. The group, led by Yitzhak Maron, also includes Vladimir Bernshtam, Rami Doron, Vladimir Fisher, Eyal Kroupp, Evgeny Stambulchik, and Alexander Starobinets. Studies of plasmas subjected to high energy deposition involve investigations of interactions with strong electric and magnetic fields, propagation of ionization fronts, production of fast particle beams, generation of magnetic shocks, development of collective fluctuating fields, and plasma-surface interactions. Implications to the development of intense x-ray sources, plasma switches, generation of electron and ion beams, and to astrophysical phenomena are considered.
The diagnostic methods are based on fast high-resolution plasma spectroscopy of spontaneous emission in the region from visible to x-rays and spectroscopy of laser absorption and laser-stimulated emission. Theoretical analysis of the experimental data is based on detailed modeling of atomic physics processes that govern the atomic/ionic spectral line broadening, atomic level splitting under electric and magnetic fields, field ionization, and time-dependent collisional-radiative calculations.
The plasma laboratory conducts broad international collaborations with a number of groups and individual researchers from the US and Europe.
Current activities in the Plasma Laboratory encompass:
- Studies of conversion of magnetic-field energy to kinetic energy and radiation in imploding and stagnating plasmas (in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories, USA);
- Ionization waves, pressure waves, turbulence and magnetic field distribution in plasmas imploded by magnetic fields (in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories and Cornell University, USA);
- Propagation of magnetic shocks in low-resistivity plasmas; Hall-effect physics;
- Investigations of warm dense matter (WDM) – a transient non-equilibrium state of matter between a solid and a plasma, created in the interaction of short intense laser pulses with a solid target, including studies of the relativistic electrons and ultra-high fields formed in the targets (in collaboration with the Jena and Rostock Universities, Germany);
- Extensive modeling of spectral line shapes and plasma kinetics;
- Development of novel laser-based accelerators of electrons and protons (in collaboration with the Jena University, Germany).
The work led by Amos Breskin and including Rachel Chechik, Sergei Shchemelinin and Sana Shilstein, involves study of radiation interactions with gas and solid matter and the development of novel methods to exploit the resulting secondary charges for radiation detection. This permits conceiving fast and accurate advanced radiation imaging detectors equipped with novel electron multipliers and efficient radiation converters, such as photocathodes for ultraviolet and visible light, and X-ray and neutron converters. The research program includes both experimental investigations and theoretical modeling. An important activity is the development of modern detection concepts for nuclear, particle and astroparticle physics, synchrotron radiation, material science, medicine and radio-biology. New methods are investigated for early detection of prostate cancer, positron emission tomography (PET) and for quantifying radiation damage to DNA.
II. Theoretical Physics
The work of Ofer Aharony involves field theories, string theories, and the relations between them along the lines of the AdS/CFT correspondence. Particular interest is in the study of string theory duals for non-conformal field theories like QCD, in understanding non-gravitational non-local field theories (such as "little string theories") and in finding a general non-perturbative definition for string theory / M theory. Ofer is also interested in understanding better confinement and the dynamics of supersymmetric gauge theories (with or without supersymmetry breaking).
The work of Micha Berkooz focuses of the development and application of new theoretical ideas and methods to the study strongly coupled physical systems. It currently focuses on non-perturbative aspects of String theory, field theory, supersymmetry and gravity, and their application to particle phenomenology, strongly coupled critical behaviour in condensed matter system in and off equilibrium, and the application of quantum information theory to dynamical black holes.
The work of Doron Gepner is centered around two subjects: 1) Solving the quantum field theory associated with manifolds of exceptional holonomy: minimal models associated with the so called Shatashvili-Vafa algebra are investigated and smooth non-orbifold constructions are realized in analogy with the Gepner construction. 2) Realizing pseudo conformal field theories: these have the same fusion rules as known affine or bosonic theories, but different modular matrix. All pseudo bosonic theories and also some of the pseudo affine theories can be realized. The plan is to realize all affine theories by using multi-para fermions.
The work of Yitzhak Frishman includes various aspects of non-Abelian gauge theories, perturbative and non-perturbative. These theories, within the standard model, describe strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions, as observed in Nature. Two dimensional models are being used, especially to learn about non-perturbative methods, and to possibly apply to four dimensions. For the spectrum and various other properties of states, strong coupling methods have to be developed, which is obviously in the non-perturbative regime. We have completed a book, together with Jacob Sonneschein from Tel Aviv University, entitled "Non-Perturbative Field Theory From Two-Dimensional Conformal Field Theory to QCD in Four Dimensions", published by Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Michael Kirson works on the theory of the structure of atomic nuclei. Recent work has concentrated on the systematics of nuclear masses and spectra, with particular reference to semi-empirical mass formulas and to random two-body interactions.
Yossi Nir's research subjects include flavor at the LHC; particle cosmology, especially electroweak baryogenesis, leptogenesis and dark matter; phenomenology and flavor issues in supersymmetric theories; CP violation.
Zvi Lipkin works on (1) Hadron spectroscopy (with Marek Karliner) and (2) Quantum theory of neutrino oscillations.
The work of Shmuel Gurvitz includes multi-dimensional tunneling; quantum measurement and decoherence; Zeno effect; quantum transport in mesoscopic systems; deep inelastic scattering in nuclei.
III. Theoretical, Observational & Experimental Astrophysics
The research interests of the astrophysics group are briefly summarized below. For more details check the Astrophysics Home Page.
The theoretical astrophysics group includes T. Alexander, M. Milgrom, V. Usov, and E. Waxman.
The research of T. Alexander focuses on:
The research of M. Milgrom focuses on:
- Massive black holes (MBHs): Stellar dynamics near MBHs, Close interactions of stars and MBHs, Gravitational wave sources;
- The MBH in the Milky Way: The origin of young stars near the Galactic MBH, Post-Newtonian effects near the Galactic MBH, Interpretation and modeling of observations of the Galactic Center.
The research of V. Usov focuses on:
- Underlying theories for the modified dynamics (non-relativistic and relativistic).
- Phenomenology of galaxy dynamics.
- Effects of the modified dynamics in the solar system.
E. Waxman studies various topics in Theoretical Astrophysics, with a focus on High-Energy and Particle Astrophysics.
- Quark stars and their observational appearance (with M. Milgrom).
- Physical processes in relativistic electron-positron plasma.
- Physical processes in very strong magnetic fields.
- The theory of nonthermal radiation from compact astronomical objects (pulsars, white dwarfs, gamma-ray bursters, etc.).
- Hydrodynamics and high-energy physics of colliding stellar winds in binary systems.
A. Gal-Yam is the first faculty member working in the area of observational astrophysics. He will be joined by a new faculty member, E. Ofek, in the coming fall.
A. Gal-Yam is developing the observational astrophysics activity in close collaboration with the Theoretical Astrophysics group members. His research is focused on cosmic explosions: the catastrophic deaths of stars. Huge amounts of energy are released within hours in events so bright they are seen from the edge of the Universe. The resulting extreme physical conditions involve huge densities, pressures and temperatures, strong magnetic fields, nuclear and high energy particle reactions, and strong relativistic effects (special and general). These topics are at the forefront of research in high energy particle astrophysics and gravity theories, with implications from the source of life to cosmology.
Experimental Particle Astrophysics: XENON Dark-matter search
This year, the department began a new activity in experimental astroparticle physics: the search for Dark Matter. Eilam Gross and Ehud Duchovni (Particle Physics), Amos Breskin (Detector Physics) and Lorne Levinson (Electronics and data acquisition) have joined the XENON experiment at the Gran Sasso under-ground Laboratory, Italy. XENON aims at detecting cold dark matter particles via their elastic collisions with xenon nuclei in two-phase liquid-xenon time projection chambers (TPCs). The Weizmann Institute XENON group is taking an active part in the statistical data analysis of the on-going XENON 100kg experiment and the design of the more ambitious XENON 1t detector. XENON 100kg is an ultra-low background detector, filled with 170 kg of liquid xenon (part of it is an active background shield). Our group suggested an improved data analysis, resulting from our long accumulated expertise in rare-event searches of Higgs particles at the LHC; it is based on Profile Likelihood ratios. As a result, the sensitivity achieved for dark matter searches is maximized delivering the lowest Dark Matter detection limits obtained so far.
XENON 1t will use a target mass of about two tons. A two-phase TPC will be im-mersed in an active water shield (a Cherenkov muon veto); it is expected to reach sensitivities of 10-47 cm2 WIMP-nucleon Spin Independent cross-sections - about two orders of magnitude lower than current detectors. The Weizmann team designed and intends to build the huge active Water-Shield tank, which hosts the Muon-Veto Photomultipliers. We are also involved in the design of the calibration system (for gammas and nuclear recoils), in Monte Carlo simulations of the detector and its response, the development of electronics to read out the TPC's sensors, and the experiment's monitoring and control system. In parallel, the group is carrying out extensive generic research on novel cryo-genic gaseous-photomultipliers as an alternative concept for UV-scintillation re-cording from large-volume liquid-xenon TPCs.
Research Staff, Visitors and Students
Ofer Aharony, Ph.D., Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel
Micha Berkooz, Ph.D., Rutgers University, Piscataway, United States
Amos Breskin, Dr. Ing., University of Grenoble, France
The Walter P. Reuther Professorial Chair of Research in the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy
Shmuel Gurvitz, Ph.D., Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow, Russian Federation
Haim Harari, Ph.D., The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
The Annenberg Professorial Chair of High Energy Physics
Michael Hass, Ph.D., Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
The Murray B. Koffler Professorial Chair
Yitzhak Maron, Ph.D., Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
The Stephen and Mary Meadow Professorial Chair of Laser Photochemistry
Giora Mikenberg, Ph.D., Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
The Lady Davis Professorial Chair of Experimental Physics
Mordehai Milgrom, Ph.D., Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
The Isidor I. Rabi Professorial Chair of Physics
Yosef Nir, Ph.D., Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
The Amos de Shalit Professorial Chair of Theoretical Physics
Itzhak Tserruya, Ph.D., Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel (on extension of service)
The Samuel Sebba Professorial Chair of Pure and Applied Physics
Vladimir Usov, Ph.D., Space Research Institute, Moscoe, Russian Federation
Eli Waxman, Ph.D., The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
The Max Planck Professorial Chair of Quantum Physics
Daniel Zajfman, D.Sc., Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel
The Simon Weinstock Professorial Chair of Astrophysics
Abraham E. Blaugrund, Ph.D., State University of Utrecht
Yehuda Eisenberg, Ph.D., Cornell University, Ithaca, United States
Yitzhak Frishman, Ph.D., Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
Gvirol Goldring, Ph.D., University of London, London, United Kingdom
Uri Karshon, Ph.D., Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
Michael W. Kirson, Ph.D., Cornell University, Ithaca, United States
Moshe Kugler, Ph.D., Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel (deceased September 2010)
Harry J. Lipkin, Ph.D., Princeton University, Princeton, United States
Avraham S. Rinat, Ph.D., University of Amsterdam
Igal Talmi, Dr. Sc. Nat., E.T.H., Zurich, Switzerland
Zeev Vager, Ph.D., Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
Zeev Zinamon, Ph.D., The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
Tal Alexander, Ph.D., Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel
Ehud Duchovni, Ph.D., Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
The Wolfgang Gentner Professorial Chair of Nuclear Physics
Doron Gepner, Ph.D., Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
Eilam Gross, Ph.D., Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
Avishay Gal-Yam, Ph.D., Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
Alexander Milov, Ph.D., Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
Incumbent of the Dewey David Stone and Harry Levine Career Development Chair
Gilad Perez, Ph.D., Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
Incumbent of the Shloimo and Michla Tomarin Career Development Chair
Senior Staff Scientists
Vladimir Bernshtam, Ph.D., Donetsk State University, Donetsk, Ukraine
Vladimir Fisher, Ph.D., Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Moscow, Russian Federation
Daniel Lellouch, Ph.D., University of Paris VI, Paris, France
Ilia Ravinovich, Ph.D., Yerevan Physics Institute, Armenia
Associate Staff Scientists
Eyal Kroupp, Ph.D., Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
Vladimir Smakhtin, Ph.D., Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
Evgeny Stambulchik, Ph.D., Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
Alexander Starobinets, Ph.D., The Institute of High Current Electronics, Russian Federation
Assistant Staff Scientist
Gabor Kupi, Ph.D., Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest, Hungary
Leonid Weingarten, Ph.D., ivanovo State Universtiy, Ivanovo, Russian Federation
Carlos Badenes, Ph.D., Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain (left September 2010)
Amit Klier, Ph.D., Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel (left December 2010)
Igor Rahinov, Ph.D., Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel (left November 2010)
Donald Hochman, Ph.D., SUNY, Stony Brook, United States (retired November 2010)
Boris Yankovsky, M.Sc., Metallurgic Institute, Novokuznetsk, Russian Federation
Ron Arad, Center for Nuclear Research, Nahal Soreq, Yavne, Israel
Yosef Babichenko, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
Carlos Badenes, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel
Shmuel Elitzur, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
Amnon Fruchtman, Center for Technology Education, Holon, Israel
Amit Giveon, The Hebrew University of Jerusaelm, Jerusalem
Marek Karliner, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel
Harry J. Lipkin
Avraham S. Rinat
Sariel Shalev, Haifa University, Haifa, Israel
Jacob Sonnenschein, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel
Daniel Strasser, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
Benjamin Svetitsky, Tel Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, Tel-Aviv, Israel
Adi Armoni, University of Wales, UK
Bruce R Barrett
Anastasia Bochenkova, University of Aarhus, Denmark
Juan Jose Gomez Cadenas, U of Valencia, Spain
Richard Chasman, Argonne Nat. Lab., IL, U.S.A.
Moshe Elitzur, University of Kentucky, Lexington, U.S.A.
Bartomeu Fiol, University of Barcelona, Spain
Dale Andrew Frail
Dafne Guetta, Observatorio Astrofisico Arcetri, Firenze, Italy
Uri Keshet, Center of Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A.
Jean-Pierre Lasota, Institut d'Astrophysique in Paris, France
Eckart Lorenz, Max Planck Inst., Munich, Germany
Jan Louis, Universitat Hamburg, Germany
Louis Lyons, Imperial College, London, UK
Lorenzo Mannelli, University of Texas at Austin, U.S.A.
David Melnik, Soreq Nuclear Center, Yavne, Israel
Shiraz Minwalla, Tata Inst. of Fund. Rese. Mumbai, India
Daniel Patnaude, Harvard University , MA, U.S.A.
Vladimir Peskov, CERN, Euro. Org. For Nuclear Rese., Geneva, Switzerland
Dori Reichman, University of Michigan, U.S.A.
Elena Maria Rossi, University of Milano, Italy
Dirk Schwalm, Max Planck Inst., Heildelberg, Germany
Anatoly Shabad, Russian Acad. of Sci., Moscow, Russia
Boris Sharkov, Helmholtz Ctr. for Infection Rese., Braunschweig, Germany
Roy Tuhin Subhara
Andrew White, University of Texas at Austin, U.S.A.
Lior Arazi, Tel-Aviv University, Israel
Ran Budnik, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
Henrik Buhr, Ph.D., Ruprecht-Karls-Universitat Heidelberg
Kuljeet Singh Chakkal, Ph.D., Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chd.
Cyril Closset, Ulb
Cedric A. A. Delaunay, University of Paris Xi And Spht Cea-Saclay
Sophia Domokos, University of Chicago
Zeev Fradkin, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
Florian Karl Gmeiner, Lmu Munich
Masanori Hanada, Ph.D., Department Of Physics, Kyoto University
Jose Juknevich, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Bhim Prasad Kafle, Graduate University For Advanced Studies
Boaz Katz, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
Vivek Kumar, Ph.D., Department of Physics, Panjab University, India
Seung Joon Lee, Cornell University
Mihael Makek, University Of Zagreb, Faculty of Science
Lorenzo Mannelli, Ph.D., University of California Santa Cruz
Aviv Ofer, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
Hagai Perets, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
David Polishook, Tel-Aviv University, Israel
Daniel Robles Llana, Ph.D., Stony Brook University
Deepali Sharma, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
Assaf Sternberg, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Israel
Dong Xu, Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, Unive
Ofer Yaron, Tel-Aviv University, Israel
Raz Alon Dror Alumot Iair Arcavi Liron Barak Sagi Ben-Ami Leon Berdichevsky Acosta Kfir Blum Michal Bregman Marco Cortesi Matan Field Ofir Gabizon Oram Gedalia Daniel Grossman Guy Gur-Ari Tsviki Hirsh Yonit Hochberg Boaz Katz Doron Kushnir Uri Lev Dimitry Mikitchuk Dmitry Milstein Maxim Naglis Itay Rabinak Guy Rosenzweig Itamar Roth Boaz Rubinstein Nir Sapir Itamar Shamir Deepali Sharma Ohad Silbert Sergey Vaintraub Ofer Vitells Ran Yacoby Amir Zait