Chemistry Safety

Glossary of Chemical Terms

ACGIH
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists is a voluntary membership organization of professional industrial hygiene personnel in governmental or educational institutions. The ACGIH develops and publishes recommended occupational exposure limits each year called Threshold Limit Values (TLV's) for hundreds of chemicals, physical agents, and includes Biological Exposure Indices (BEI).

Action Level
A concentration designated in 29 CFR part 1910 for a specific substance, calculated as an eight hour time-weighted average, which initiates certain required activities such as exposure monitoring and medical surveillance.

Acute
Severe, often dangerous exposure conditions in which relatively rapid changes occur.

Acute Exposure
An intense exposure over a relatively short period of time.

ANSI
The American National Standards Institute is a voluntary membership organization (run with private funding) that develops national consensus standards for a wide variety of devices and procedures.

Asphyxiant
A chemical (gas or vapor) that can cause death or unconsciousness by suffocation. Simple asphyxiants such as nitrogen, either use up or displace oxygen in the air. They become especially dangerous in confined or enclosed spaces. Chemical asphyxiants, such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide, interfere with the body's ability to absorb or transport oxygen to the tissues.

Autoclave
A device to expose items to steam at a high pressure in order to decontaminate the materials or render them sterile.

Biohazard
Infectious agents that present a risk or potential risk to the health of humans or other animals, either directly through infection or indirectly through damage to the environment.

Boiling Point
The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals atmospheric pressure or at which the liquid changes to a vapor. The boiling point is usually expressed in degrees Fahrenheit. If a flammable material has a low boiling point, it indicates a special fire hazard.

"C" or Ceiling
A description usually seen in connection with a published exposure limit. It refers to the concentration that should not be exceeded, even for an instant. It may be written as TLV-C or Threshold Limit Value--Ceiling (See also THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE).

Carcinogen
A substance that may cause cancer in animals or humans.

C.A.S. Number
Identifies a particular chemical by the Chemical Abstracts Service, a service of the American Chemical Society that indexes and compiles abstracts of worldwide chemical literature called "Chemical Abstracts."

Chemical Hygiene Officer
An employee who is designated by the employee and who is qualified by training and experience, to provide technical guidance in the development and implementation of the provisions of the Chemical Hygiene Plan. This definition is not intended to place limitations on the position description or job classification that the designated individual shall hold within the employer's organizational structure.

Chemical Hygiene Plan
A written program developed and implemented by the department which sets forth procedures, equipment, personal protective equipment and work practices that are capable of protecting students, instructors and other personnel from the health hazards presented by the hazardous chemicals used in that particular workplace.

Chronic exposure
A prolonged exposure occurring over a period of days, weeks, or years.

Combustible
According to the DOT and NFPA, combustible liquids are those having a flash point at or above 100°F (37.8°C), or liquids that will burn. They do not ignite as easily as flammable liquids. However, combustible liquids can be ignited under certain circumstances, and must be handled with caution. Substances such as wood, paper, etc., are termed "Ordinary Combustibles."

Compressed Gas
A gas or mixture of gases that, in a container, will have an absolute pressure exceeding 40 psi at 70°F or 21.1°C. A gas or mixture of gases having, in a container, an absolute pressure exceeding 104 psi at 130°F or 54.4°C, regardless of the pressure at 70°F. A liquid having a vapor pressure exceeding 40 psi at 100°F or 37.8°C.

Concentration
The relative amount of a material in combination with another material. For example, 5 parts (of acetone) per million (parts of air).

Corrosive
A substance that, according to the DOT, causes visible destruction or permanent changes in human skin tissue at the site of contact or is highly corrosive to steel.

Cutaneous/Dermal
Pertaining to or affecting the skin.

Cytotoxin
A substance toxic to cells in culture, or to cells in an organism.

Decomposition
The breakdown of a chemical or substance into different parts or simpler compounds. Decomposition can occur due to heat, chemical reaction, decay, etc.

Designated Area
An area which may be used for work with "select carcinogens," reproductive toxins or substances which have a high degree of acute toxicity. This area may be the entire laboratory or an area under a device such as a laboratory hood.

Dermatitis
An inflammation of the skin.

Dilution Ventilation
See General Ventilation.

DOT
The United States Department of Transportation is the Federal agency that regulates the labeling and transportation of hazardous materials.

Dyspnea
Shortness of breath, difficult or labored breathing.

EPA
The Environmental Protection Agency is the governmental agency responsible for administration of laws to control and/or reduce pollution of air, water, and land systems.

EPA Number
The number assigned to chemicals regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Epidemiology
The study of disease in human populations.

Erythema
A reddening of the skin.

Evaporation Rate
The rate at which a material is converted to vapor (evaporates) at a given temperature and pressure when compared to the evaporation rate of a given substance. Health and fire hazard evaluations of materials involve consideration of evaporation rates as one aspect of the evaluation.

Explosive
A chemical that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release of pressure, gas, and heat when subjected to sudden shock, pressure or high temperature.

Flammable Gas
A gas that, at an ambient temperature and pressure, forms a flammable mixture with air at a concentration of 13 percent by volume or less; or, a gas that, at an ambient temperature and pressure forms a range of flammable mixtures with air wider than 12 percent by volume, regardless of the lower limit.

Flammable Liquid
According to the DOT and NFPA a flammable liquid is one that has a flash point below 100 deg.F. (See Flash Point).

Flammable Solid
A solid, other than a blasting agent or explosive, that is liable to cause fire through friction, absorption of moisture, spontaneous chemical change or retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which can be ignited readily and when ignited burns so vigorously and persistently it creates a serious hazard.

Flash Point
The lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off enough vapor to form an ignitable mixture and burn when a source of ignition (sparks, open flames, etc. ) is present. Two tests are used to determine the flash point: open cup and closed cup. The test method is indicated on the MSDS after the flash point.

Fume
A solid particle that has condensed from the vapor state.

Gas
Chemical substances that exist in the gaseous state at room temperature.

General Ventilation
Also known as general exhaust ventilation, this is a system of ventilation consisting of either natural or mechanically induced fresh air movements to mix with and dilute contaminants in the workroom air.

This is not the recommended type of ventilation to control contaminants that are highly toxic, when there may be corrosion problems from the contaminant, when the worker is close to where the contaminant is being generated, and where fire or explosion hazards are generated close to sources of ignition. (See Local Exhaust Ventilation).

Grams per Kilogram (g/Kg)
This indicates the dose of a substance given to test animals in toxicity studies. For example, a dose may be 2 grams (of substance) per kilogram of body weight (of the experimental animal).

Hazardous Chemicals
Any chemical for which there is significant evidence, that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed personnel. The term "health hazard" includes chemicals that are carcinogens, toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers or other agents that can damage the lungs, skin, eyes or mucous membranes.

Ignitable
A solid, liquid or compressed gas waste that has a flash point of less than 140deg.F. Ignitable material may be regulated by the EPA as a hazardous waste, as well.

Incompatible
The term applied to two substances to indicate that one material cannot be mixed with the other without the possibility of a dangerous reaction.

Ingestion
Taking a substance into the body through the mouth as food, drink, medicine, or unknowingly as on contaminated hands or cigarettes, etc.

Inhalation
The breathing in of an airborne substance that may be in the form of gas, fumes mists, vapors, dusts, or aerosols.

Inhibitor
A substance that is added to another to prevent or slow down an unwanted reaction or change.

Irritant
A substance that produces an irritation effect when it contacts skin, eyes, nose, or respiratory system.

Laboratory
A facility where relatively small quantities of hazardous materials are used on a non-production basis.

Laboratory Scale
Work with substances in which the containers used for reactions, transfers, and other handling of substances are designed to be easily and safely manipulated by one person.

Laboratory-type Hood
A device constructed and maintained to draw air from the laboratory and to prevent or minimize the escape of air contaminants into the laboratory.

Laboratory Use of Hazardous Materials
The handling or use of chemicals in which the following conditions are met: (1) Chemical manipulations are carried out on a laboratory scale. (2) Multiple chemical procedures or chemicals are used. (3) The procedures involved are not part of a production process. (4) Protective laboratory practices and equipment are available and in common use to minimize the potential for personnel exposure to hazardous chemicals.

Laminar Air Flow
Air flow in which the entire mass of air within a designated space move with uniform velocity in a single direction along parallel flow lines with a minimum of mixing.

Lethal Concentration50
The concentration of an air contaminant (LC50) that will kill 50 percent of the test animals in a group during a single exposure.

Lethal Dose50
The dose of a substance or chemical that will (LD50) kill 50 percent of the test animals in a group within the first 30 days following exposure.

Local Exhaust Ventilation (Also known as Exhaust Ventilation)
A ventilation system that captures and removes air contaminants at the point they are being produced before they escape into the workroom air. The system consists of hoods, ductwork, a fan and possibly an air cleaning device.

Advantages of local exhaust ventilation over general ventilation include: removing the contaminant rather than diluting it; less airflow making it a more economical system over the long run; and conservation or reclamation of valuable materials. However, the system must be properly designed with the correctly shaped and placed hoods, correctly sized fans and correctly connected ductwork.

Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) (Also known as Lower Flammable Limit-LFL)
The lowest concentration of a substance that will produce a fire or flash when an ignition source (flame, spark, etc.) is present. It is expressed in percent of vapor or gas in the air by volume. Below the LEL or LFL, the air/contaminant mixture is theoretically too "lean" to burn (See also UEL).

Melting Point
The temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid. A melting range may be given for mixtures.

Mutagen
Anything that can cause a change (or mutation) in the genetic material of a living cell.

Narcosis
Stupor or unconsciousness caused by exposure to a chemical.

NFPA
The National Fire Protection Association is a voluntary membership organization whose aims are to promote and improve fire protection and prevention. NFPA has published 16 volumes of codes known as the National Fire Codes. Within these codes is Standard No. 704, "Identification of the Fire Hazards of Materials." This is a system that rates the hazard of a material during a fire. These hazards are divided into health, flammability, and reactivity hazards and appear in a well-known diamond system using from zero through four to indicate severity of the hazard. Zero indicates no special hazard and four indicates severe hazard.

NIOSH
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is a Federal agency that among its various responsibilities trains occupational health and safety professionals, conducts research on health and safety concerns, and tests and certifies respirators for workplace use.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
A Federal agency under the Department of Labor that publishes and enforces safety and health regulations for most businesses and industries in the United States.

Odor Threshold
The minimum concentration of a substance at which a majority of test subjects can detect and identify the substance's characteristic odor.

Oxidation
The process of combining oxygen with some other substance or a chemical change in which and atom loses electrons.

Oxidizer
Is a substance that gives up oxygen easily to stimulate combustion of organic material.

Oxygen Deficiency
An atmosphere having less than the normal percentage of oxygen found in normal air. Normal air contains 21% oxygen at sea level.

Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)
An exposure limit that is published and enforced by OSHA as a legal standard. PEL may be either a time-weighted-average (TWA) exposure limit (8 hour), a 15-minute short term exposure limit (STEL), or a ceiling (C). The PELs are found in Tables Z-1,Z-2, or Z-3 of OSHA regulations 1910.1000. (See also TLV).

Personal Protective Equipment
Any devices or clothing worn by the worker to protect against hazards in the environment. Examples are respirators, gloves, and chemical splash goggles.

Physical Hazard
A chemical that has scientifically valid evidence proving it to be a combustible liquid, a compressed gas, explosive, flammable, an organic peroxide, an oxidizer, pyrophoric, unstable (reactive) or water-reactive.

Polymerization
A chemical reaction in which two or more small molecules combine to form larger molecules that contain repeating structural units of the original molecules. A hazardous polymerization is the above reaction with an uncontrolled release of energy.

Reactivity
A substance's susceptibility to undergoing a chemical reaction or change that may result in dangerous side effects, such as explosion , burning, and corrosive or toxic emissions. The conditions that cause the reaction, such as heat, other chemicals, and dropping, will usually be specified as "Conditions to Avoid" when a chemical's reactivity is discussed on a MSDS.

Reproductive Toxins
Chemicals which affect the reproductive capabilities including chromosomal damage (mutations) and effects on fetuses.

Respirator
A device which is designed to protect the wearer from inhaling harmful contaminants.

Respiratory Hazard
A particular concentration of an airborne contaminant that, when it enters the body by way of the respiratory system or by being breathed into the lungs, results in some bodily function impairment.

Select Carcinogen
Any substance which is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen, or is recognized as a carcinogen by the National Toxicology Program or the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs.

Sensitizer
A substance that may cause no reaction in a person during initial exposures, but afterwards, further exposures will cause an allergic response to the substance.

Short Term Exposure Limit
Represented as STEL or TLV-STEL, this is the maximum concentration to which workers can be exposed for a short period of time (15 minutes) for only four times throughout the day with at least one hour between exposures. Also, the daily TLV-TWA must not be exceeded.

"Skin"
This designation sometimes appears alongside a TLV or PEL. It refers to the possibility of absorption of the particular chemical through the skin and eyes. Thus, protection of large surface areas of skin should be considered to prevent skin absorption so that the TLV is not invalidated.

Systemic
Spread throughout the body; affecting many or all body systems or organs; not localized in one spot or area.

Teratogen
An agent or substance that may cause physical defects in the developing embryo or fetus when a pregnant female is exposed to that substance.

Threshold Limit Value
Airborne concentrations of substances devised by the ACGIH that represents conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be exposed day after day with no adverse effect. TLV's are advisory exposure guidelines, not legal standards, that are based on evidence from industrial experience, animal studies, or human studies when they exist. There are three different types of TLV's: Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA), Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL) and Ceiling (TLV-C). (See also PEL).

Time Weighted Average
The average time, over a given work period (e.g. 8-hour workday) of a person's exposure to a chemical or an agent. The average is determined by sampling for the contaminant throughout the time period. Represented as TLV-TWA.

Toxicity
The potential of a substance to exert a harmful effect on humans or animals and a description of the effect and the conditions or concentration under which the effect takes place.

Trade Name
The commercial name or trademark by which a chemical is known. A single chemical may have a variety of trade names, depending on the manufacturers or distributors involved.

Unstable (Reactive)
A chemical that, in its pure state or as commercially produced, will react vigorously in some hazardous way under shock conditions (i.e., dropping), certain temperatures, or pressures.

Upper Explosive Limit
Also known as Upper Flammable Limit, is the highest concentration (expressed in percent of vapor or gas in the air by volume) of a substance that will burn or explode when an ignition source is present.

Theoretically, above this limit the mixture is said to be too "rich" to support combustion. The difference between the LEL and the UEL constitutes the flammable range or explosive range of a substance. That is, if the LEL is 1ppm and the UEL is 5ppm, then the explosive range of the chemical is 1ppm - 5ppm. (See also LEL).

Vapor
The gaseous state of substances which are normally in the liquid or solid state (at normal room temperature and pressure). Vapors evaporate into the air from liquids such as solvents. Solvents with low boiling points will evaporate.

Vapor Pressure
The pressure that a solid or liquid exerts when it is in equilibrium with its vapor at a given temperature.

Water-reactive
A chemical that reacts with water to release a gas that is either flammable or presents a health hazard.