Chapter 1. Introduction

Why bromine?
Bromine and its properties
The discovery of bromine
Chemical reactions of bromine
From bromine to its compounds
Historical review
The rise and fall of EDB (Ethylene Dibromide)
Is there a future for bromine after EDB?
1.4 Bromine throughout the world
Distribution of bromine
Global production of bromine
Global production of bromine compounds

Chapter 2. Bromine from the Dead Sea

2.1 Bromine from the Dead Sea. Why?
2.2 Weighing the pros and cons of building up the bromine industry in Israel
Concepts studied in Chapters 1 and 2
Questions about Chapters 1 and 2

Chapter 3. How is bromine produced?

3.1 Introduction
3.2 How is chlorine produced in the laboratory?
3.3 How is bromine produced in the laboratory?
Step A: Preparation of chlorine
Step B: Reaction to form bromine
Step C: Separation of the bromine
3.4 Safety in the laboratory
3.5 From laboratory to industrial production of bromine
Choosing raw materials
Choosing construction materials
Quantitative aspects of the process
Degree of product purity
Energy costs
3.6 How is chlorine produced industrially?
3.7 Bromine production at Sdom - How is bromine produced industrially?
The bromine-generating step
Bromine separation steps
3.8 Construction materials in the bromine plant
3.9 Production safety, storage, transportation and use of bromine
Hazards of bromine
Safe production of bromine
Safe handling of bromine leakage
Safe storage of bromine
Safe transportation of bromine
Safe use of bromine
Concepts studied in Chapter 3
Questions about Chapter 3

Chapter 4. From idea to product

4.1 General principles of product development
Testing the idea
From idea to laboratory
From laboratory to production
Main variables taken into account in the scaling up process
Raw materials
Reaction conditions and reaction rate
Equipment and installations
Batchwise or continuous process?
Output and yield
Degree of Product Purity
Saving on inputs
Spectrum - The Bromine Compounds pilot plant
4.2 How to achieve overall quality?
Control, quality control, quality assurance and environmental considerations
4.3 Preservation of safety and environment
In industry
4.4 Toxicology and product registration
4.5 Industrial waste treatment
Biological treatment
Concepts studied in Chapter 4
Questions about Chapter 4

Chapter 5. Production of bromine compounds

5.1 Production of hydrogen bromide, HBr
Stage A: The hydrogen bromide reaction
Stage B: Removal of bromine
Stage C: Hydrogen bromide absorption in water
5.2 Production of Calcium Bromide, CaBr2 (solution and solid)
Stage A: Reaction
Stage B: Filtration
Stage C: Evaporation
Stage D: Filtration
Stage E: Drying
5.3 Production of sodium bromate, NaBrO3, and potassium bromate, KBrO3
Stage A: Reaction
Stage B: Separation of crystals from solution (and treatment of crystals)
Stage C: Electrolysis
Stage D: Grading the crystals
5.4 Production of bromomethane, CH3Br (methyl bromide)
Stage A: Reaction
Stage B: Purification
Stage C: Condensation
Stage D: Storage and packaging
Concepts studied in Chapter 5
Questions about Chapter 5

Chapter 6. Applications of bromine and its compounds

6.1 Bromine compounds in agriculture
The global food problem
Pest control
Bromine compounds as pesticides
How is methyl bromide used?
Considerations of the use of methyl bromide
Possible solutions?
6.2 Biologically active bromine compounds (biocides)
Use of halogens and related compounds as disinfectants
Chlorine as biocide
Combined bromine and chlorine biocides
6.3 Flame-retardants
Fire and its hazards
Carbon compounds burning process - example of a chain reaction
Fire extinguishing
Flame-retardation and working mechanisms of flame-retardants
How are flame-retardants incorporated in products?
Additive flame-retardants
Reactive flame-retardants
Choosing a flame-retardant
6.4 Brominated drilling fluids
6.5 Bromine compounds in photography
6.6 Use of lithium bromide, LiBr, for cooling systems
6.7 Applications of bromates
6.8 Bromine compounds as intermediates and for medical and other uses
Concepts discussed in Chapter 6
Questions about Chapter 6


Bromine: from Discovery to the 21st Century
Structure and organization
Economic data
In summary
Subjects for a summarizing discussion


Appendix A: Conversion and yield
Reaction yield (without recyling)
Appendix B: Material Safety Data Sheet - Bromine
Appendix C: What is a patent?

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