Electron Beam Lithography and Nano-engineering Workstation

Raith’s e_LiNE plus system enables advanced electron beam lithography (EBL), with the following writing specifications:

  • Minimum Grating periodicity: Maximum 40 nm period with <20 nm line width
  • Minimum Feature Size: Minimum line width < 10nm
  • Stitching accuracy: |mean| + 3σ ≤ 40nm
  • Overlay accuracy: |mean| + 3σ ≤ 40nm

Additional "nano engineering" options are as follows:

  • Focused electron beam induced deposition
  • Fixed beam moving stage
  • Nanomanipulators
  • 3D writing

RAITH E_Line Plus

Electron Beam Lithography

ELPHY Quantum is lithography hardware attachment for SEM JEOL 7000F.

All required functions are fully integrated into one software, from pattern design, exposure parameter management, pattern overlay alignment to step and repeat exposures.

RAITH Elphy Quantum

Laser Writer –Tabletop Micro Pattern Generator

The μPG 101 is an extremely economical and easy to use micro pattern generator for direct writing applications and low volume mask making. The system can be used for applications such as MEMS, Bio MEMS, Integrated Optics, Micro Fluidics or any other application that requires high precision, high-resolution microstructures. The μPG 101 offers a small footprint of only 60 x 75 cm², featuring a compact design with all electronic components integrated into the system. A personal computer is used as system control. The GUI based control software makes it easy for users to convert the designs, perform a manual or automatic alignment and start the exposure.

The µPG 101 is designed to provide an easy and fast way to create sub-micron features. The small address grid allows placement of structures with very high accuracy. The real-time autofocus system monitors and corrects focus position during exposure, which guarantees high resolution and repeatability over the entire exposure area. Small address grid and real-time autofocus system are essential features for a professional micro pattern solution.

The standard system is equipped with a diode laser at 405 nm, which presents a reliable laser source with a long lifetime. This laser can be used to expose the standard photoresists that are used in lithography. Alternatively, the system can be equipped with a laser diode at 375 nm, making it possible to expose standard resists and UV resists such as SU-8. The system offers a raster-scan and vector exposure mode for high resolution 2D patterns and in addition it is also possible to create complex 3D structures in thick photoresist in a single pass.

μPG 101

Mask Aligner

The MA6 mask aligner was designed to pattern parts of thin films using optical lithography. It uses light to transfer a geometric pattern from a photomask to a light-sensitive chemical "photoresist", or simply "resist," on the substrate.

The Karl Suss MA6 is one of the most reliable mask aligners in the industry with a low maintenance cost. It works with substrates up to 150mm in diameter. The exposure wavelength is UV400 (range 350- 450 nm). Two exposure intensity channels are provided over which the user can vary the time of exposure for proper image sharpness.

A Bottom Side Alignment option allows patterning on both sides of the substrate.

Automatic wedge compensation can be used to ensure that the mask and the wafer are parallel. Z-axis is motorized, and the gap between mask and wafer is programmable from 0 to 300 microns.

Several contact modes are available, for which the space resolution is as following:

Contact mode Space Resolution
Vacuum Contact < 0.8  μm
Hard Contact 1.0  μm
Soft Contact 2.0  μm
Proximity 2.5  μm


Suss Microtech MA-6

E_Beam and Thermal Evaporator

Selene - High throughput KW E.B.Gun system is designed for electron beam and thermal deposition.


  • Load Lock
  • SHI-APD CP8 UHV Cryo pump
  • Oxygen and Nitrogen lines connected to the Load Lock and the chamber.
  • Water cooled substrate holder for wafers up to 4’’ in diameter
  • Substrate holder which can tilt +-45 degrees
  • Substrate front heaters. Two 500 Watt (1kW total), halogen Emitters are installed leading to max temperature of 900°C
  • Telemark 244/246, 6 x 7cc, crucible electron beam source
  • Telemark, Model TT-6, 6 kW electron beam power supply
  • Glow Discharge Power Supply 800 Watt
  • Two thermal sources 2KW


E_Beam and Thermal Evaporator

Edwards 306 is a microprocessor controlled E_beam and thermal evaporation system. The system enables thin films deposition of metals, alloys and dielectric materials.


Sputtering System

The Sputtering system is used to create thin film layers of different materials by a physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. Sputtering is a mechanism by which atoms are dislodged from the surface of a material as a result of collision with high-energy particles. Thus, Sputtering is a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique wherein atoms or molecules are ejected from a target material by high-energy particle bombardment so that the ejected atoms or molecules can condense on a substrate as a thin film.


  • Automated process control.
  • Five 2” magnetron sputtering sources available for RF and DC sputtering.
  • One 3” magnetron sputtering source (Center) available for RF and DC sputtering.
  • Load lock for quick sample and coating availability.
  • Main chamber vacuum that can reach 5x10-8 Tor.
  • 1500 Watt DC generator with integral 4-way switchbox.
  • 600W RF generator with auto-matching network with automated 3-way RF switchbox.
  • 300W RF generator with auto-matching network.
  • Gas handling of argon, oxygen, and nitrogen.
  • Substrate holder with the following features:
    • Accommodates substrates up to 3" diameter.
    • Continuous motorized rotation (0-20RPM) with controller.
    • Controlled radiant heating up to 850 C with quartz halogen lamps.
    • Water cooled reflector box.
    • RF/DC biasing capability while rotating / heating / depositing.
  • Removable LN2 substrate holder.

AJA ATC-1800

Atomic Layer Deposition

The Fiji Plasma ALD system provides flexibility and a variety of features.

We have the possibility to deposit the following atomic layers: SiO2, Al203, ZnO2, and HfO2.

Three Deposition Modes: Thermal Continuous Mode for rapid film growth, Thermal Expo Mode for ultra-high aspect ratio (>2,000:1), and Plasma Mode.

Fiji TM

Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD)

Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is a process used to deposit SiO2, Si3N4 or SiOxNy dielectric films.

Plasma of reacting gases is created by RF (AC) frequency leading to chemical reactions in the chamber. Energy for chemical reactions is provided partly by heating the substrate to a high temperature (350oC or below) and partly by the plasma. The produced films are typically used for capacitor dielectrics, chemical passivation layers, electrical insulators, reactive ion etching masks, and optical anti-reflective coatings.
The system enables stress control, high uniformity, tunable index and conformal SiNx films.


  • Gases: He, SiH4, NH3, N2, SF6, N2O.
  • Processing Temperatures: 80°C to 350°C
  • Electrode Size 11” (279mm) diameter
  • Loading load lock
  • Endpoint Detection optical Emission Interferometry (OEI)
  • RF Power Supply Dual range 60/600W 13.56 MHz.
  • Low frequency RF option included

Plasma Therm

Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)

The Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) etcher provides high chemical sensitivities with high etch rate. This STS ICP System uses fluorine-based gases for anisotropic deep silicon trench. The 13.56 MHz RF system produces a high-density, low- pressure, low-energy inductively coupled plasma. This type of plasma allows high selectivity and aspect ratio etching for depths greater than 250 microns. The system control is via a standard PC, which automatically loads a wafer into the process chamber. Once in the chamber, the wafer is placed onto a helium-cooled chuck during the process. The system is designed to etch a 100 mm (4 in.) wafer.

In ICP system the ion density and ion energy can be controlled separately. Therefore, high etch rate can be achieved together with control over selectivity and damage. Both chemical and physical (ion-induced) etching can be controlled.

ICP system enables the “Bosch” process in which etch-depths of hundreds of micrometres are achieved with almost vertical sidewalls.

The available gases are: CF4, SF6, C4F8, Ar, N2 enabling the etching of Si, SiO2, SiN and different kinds of polymers.


Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)

Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) refers to a system configuration where plasma is generated by means of inductively coupling RF power in the source while independently controlling the ion energy bombarding the substrate via the applied bias power. Plasma generation is done using 2 MHz RF power in the source while the bias is applied using 13.56 MHz RF power. This system is chlorine-based ICP system enabling the etching of Al, Cr, AlAs, GaAs and GaN.

The available gases are: BCL3, Cl2, CH4, SF6, Ar, O2, and N2.


Plasma Asher

The Diener Asher is a RF plasma barrel reactor designed for stripping, etching and cleaning. The gases used are Oxygen and Argon. The system is used for cleaning surfaces of any residues, oils, or contaminants, removing polymers/resists and for activation of various materials before gluing, painting, etc.

Diener Electronics Pico-DHP

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

The JEOL JSM-7000F Scanning Electron Microscope was stationed in the cleanroom to help users analyze their samples while keeping them in a clean environment. The JEOL JSM-7000F, equipped with a Schottky Field Emission Gun (FEG) filament, offers high resolution and large probe currents at small probe diameters permitting characterization of nano-scale structures.

The system has a multipurpose specimen chamber, motorized specimen stage and single-action specimen exchange. The system is equipped with additional features such as Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD), and Elphy Quantum E-beam Lithography (EBL).


  • Resolution: 1.2nm (at 30kV), 3nm (at 1kV)
  • 2 - 40 mm WD (working distance)
  • Magnification: 10 to 19,000 (LM mode), 100 to 500,000 (SEM mode)
  • Accelerating voltage: 0.5 to 30kV
  • Specimen illumination current: 0.1 pA to 10 nA
  • Electron gun: Schottky Field Emission.
  • Alignment: Electromagnetic deflection system
  • Objective lens: Strongly excited conical lens
  • Specimen chamber: Large chamber for 200mm specimen



Profilometry allows users to obtain a 2D trace of topographic features on a surface. The Profilometer is mostly frequently used to determine the film thickness, the channel depth of microfluidic devices, and the roughness of treated surfaces.

The instrument has vertical resolution in nanometers and horizontal resolution as small as twenty nanometers. Programmable stylus force and scan speed allow measurements on a variety of substrate materials.


Vertical range 262 µm
Vertical resolution (at various range) 1 Å / 65 KÅ, 10 Å / 655 KÅ, 40Å/2620KÅ
Scan length range 50 µm to 30 mm
Scan speed ranges 3 seconds to 200 seconds
Software leveling Two-point programmable or cursor leveling
Stage leveling  Manual
Step detection Cursor can be automatically positioned before and after steps for automatic computation of analytical functions
Stylus Diamond: 12,5 µm
Stylus tracking force Programmable 1…15 mg
Max. sample thickness 31,75 mm
Sample stage diameter 150 mm
Manual stage position translation X-axis 20 mmY-axis 80 mm
Sample stage rotation Manual theta 360º
Max. sample weight 680 g


Dektak 6M


The ellipsometer enables one to accurately measure thickness and optical constants of thin filmsimultaneously and is used for characterization of a variety of materials (e.g., dielectrics, semiconductors, organics, etc.) including Anti-Reflection coatings and organic light Emitting diodes.


Optical Microscope

Olympus Optical microscope enables dark field/write field illumination and top/bottom illumination.


Rapid Thermal Processor (RTP) AS-One 100 HT ANNEALSYS

Rapid Thermal Processing [RTP] is an advanced wafer processing technology used to expose wafers to heat over a short period of time. The term RTP applies to equipment that processes wafers at high throughput due to the ability to ramp temperature up and down in a matter of seconds.

The system enables different applications such as annealing, oxidation and nitridation. The benefits of using rapid thermal annealing include: the removal of defects introduced by ion implantation; the activation of species with little movement of the dopants (impurities that have been added to semiconductors); increasing the density of deposited film; the changing of film-to-film or film-to-water substrate interfaces; changing the states of grown films, and moving the dopants from one film to another, or into the wafer substrate.


  • 4-inch and 6-inch wafer capability
  • Stainless steel cold wall chamber technology:
  • High process reproducibility
  • Ultra clean and contamination-free environment.
  • High cooling rates and low memory effect
  • A high vacuum version (10-6 mbar) is available
  • Pyrometer and thermocouple control
  • Fast digital PID temperature controller
  • Edge pyrometer viewport ensures enhanced temperature control of the susceptor for compound semiconductors and small samples.
  • Temperature range: RT to 1500°C
  • Ramp rate up to 200°C/sec
  • Cooling rate up to 100°C/s with special equipment
  • Gas mixing capability with mass flow controllers
  • Vacuum range: Atmosphere to 10-6 Torr



The HB10 is a Bench Top Size wire bonder with the following features:

  • Wedge, Ball, Bump and Ribbon bonding
  • 17 microns to 75 microns Wire and 25 x250 microns Ribbon
  • Deep-Access Bond Head 16 mm
  • 6.5’’ TFT touch screen
  • Bond Arm Length 165mm
  • Motorized z-axis
  • Electronic Ball Size Control

tpt HB10

Chemical Workstations

Our laboratory has three chemical hoods each is dedicated to different process: Solvents, lithography and acids. In the hoods are: hotplates, spinners, ultrasonic baths, nitrogen and D.I water guns and cold development station for PMMA.