Gas Avalanche electron multiplier concepts (GEM, MHSP, R-MHSP)

The GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier developed by Sauli) is a micro-patterned-holes electrode where electron gas-avalanche amplification takes place in fine (~50 microns diameter) holes. Its off-springs, the MHSP (micro-hole & Strip Plate) and R-MHSP (Reversed-bias micro-hole & Strip Plate) multipliers, have additional patterns designed to either provide additional charge multiplication or to de-focus avalanche-ions. We studied extensively the basic properties of these multipliers in single- and cascaded modes. Among others, we developed UV-sensitive and Visible-spectral range gaseous photomultiplier concepts incorporating cascaded GEM, MHSP and R-MHSP amplification elements.