Visible-photon imaging detectors

Atmospheric-pressure gas-avalanche photomultipliers (GPM) sensitive in the visible spectral range could provide a unique solution for applications requiring large-area detection coverage. The high chemical reactivity and sensitivity to ion-feedback secondary effects of Bialkali and other photocathodes in this spectral range prevented the development of high-sensitivity GPMs. Reduction of the IBF to 10-4 levels with a cascaded GEM/MHSP/R-MHSP multiplier led to pioneering demonstration of the feasibility for producing and operating visible-photon GPMs in stable way; gains of 105 were reached for the first time, with full single-photoelectron detection efficiency. It paves the way to further developments and industrialization of such devices.