Books

    1. Г Фалькович (2014) Современная гидродинамика, краткий курс. РХД :
    2. G. Falkovich (2011) Fluid mechanics (a short course for physicists). Cambridge University Press :
    3. J. Cardy , G. Falkovich and K. Gawedzki (2008) Non-equilibrium statistical mechanics and turbulence. Cambridge University Press : [PDF]
    4. V. Zakharov , V. L'vov and G. Falkovich (1992) Kolmogorov spectra of turbulence. Springer, Djvu : [PDF]

    Reviews

    1. Falkovich G (2011) Kolmogorov and the russian school of turbulence. In: a Voyage Through Turbulence Cambridge Univ Press : 209-237[PDF]
    2. Falkovich G (2009) Symmetries of the turbulent state. J Phys a: Math Theor 42 : 123001[PDF]
    3. G Falkovich (2008) Cascade and scaling. Scholarpedia :
    4. Г. Фалькович (2007) Конформная инвариантность в гидродинамической турбулентности. УМН 62 (3) : [PDF]
    5. Falkovich , G (2007) Conformal invariance in hydrodynamic turbulence. Russian Mathematical Surveys 62 : 497-510[PDF]
    6. Falkovich G and Sreenivasan K R (2006) Lessons from hydrodynamic turbulence. Physics Today 59(4) : 43[PDF]
    7. Falkovich , G (2006) Introduction to developed turbulence. Lecture Notes on Turbulence and Coherent Structures in Fluids, Plasmas and Nonlinear Media 4 : 1-20
    8. Falkovich G , Gawedzki K and Vergassola M (2001) Particles and fields in fluid turbulence. Rev. Mod. Phys. 73 : 913--75[PDF]

    Articles

    1. G Falkovich and L Levitov (2017) Linking spatial distributions of potential and current in viscous electronics. Physical Review Letters 119 : 066601
    2. Guo , Hy; Ilseven , E; Falkovich , G; Levitov , Ls (2017) Higher-than-ballistic conduction of viscous electron flows. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114 : 3068-3073
    3. Gregory Falkovich and Alexei G. Kritsuk (2017) How vortices and shocks provide for a flux loop in two-dimensional compressible turbulence. Phys. Rev. Fluids 2 : 092603(R)[PDF]
    4. Haoyu Guo , Ekin Ilseven , Gregory Falkovich , Leonid Levitov (2017) Stokes paradox, back reflections and interaction-enhanced conduction. Arxiv:1612.09239 :
    5. Anna Frishman , Jason Laurie , Gregory Falkovich (2017) Jets or vortices - what flows are generated by an inverse turbulent cascade?. Phys. Rev. Fluids , 2 : 032602(R)
    6. Leonid Levitov & Gregory Falkovich (2016) Electron viscosity, current vortices and negative nonlocal resistance in graphene. Nature Physics 12 : 672-676
    7. Belan , S; Chernykh , A; Falkovich , G (2016) Phase transitions in the distribution of inelastically colliding inertial particles. Journal of Physics A-mathematical and Theoretical 49 :
    8. G Falkovich (2016) Interaction between mean flow and turbulence in two dimensions. Proc Royal Soc a 472 : [PDF]
    9. Belan , S.; Chernykh , A.; Lebedev , V.; Falkovich , G. (2016) Inelastic collapse and near-wall localization of randomly accelerated particles. Physical Review e 151 : 121 (11 pp.)
    10. Falkovich , G (2015) Conservation law of turbulent dispersion. Journal of Plasma Physics 81 :
    11. Gregory Falkovich and Natalia Vladimirova (2015) Cascades in nonlocal turbulence. Phys Rev e 91 : 041201[PDF]
    12. Churkin ,Kolokolov ,Podivilov ,Vatnik ,Nikulin ,Vergeles ,Terekhov ,Lebedev ,Falkovich ,Babin ,Turitsyn (2015) Wave kinetics of random fibre lasers. Nature Comm. 2 : 6214[PDF]
    13. Gregory Falkovich and Alexander Zamolodchikov (2015) Operator product expansion and multi-point correlations in turbulent energy cascades . J Phys a 48 : 18FT02
    14. Tobias Grafke , Anna Frishman , Gregory Falkovich (2015) Time-irreversibility of the statistics of a single particle in a compressible turbulence. Phys. Rev. e 91 : 043022, arXiv:1408.5580[PDF]
    15. Sergey Belan , Vladimir Lebedev and Gregory Falkovich (2015) Particle dispersion in the neutral atmospheric surface layer. Boundary-layer Meteorology : 1-18[PDF]
    16. H Xu , A Pumir , G Falkovich , E Bodenschatz , M Shats , H Xia , N Francois , G Boffetta (2014) Flight-crash events in turbulence. Pnas 111 : 7558–7563
    17. Gregory Falkovich and Krzysztof Gawedzki (2014) Turbulence on hyperbolic plane: the fate of inverse cascade. J Stat Phys 156 : 10-54[PDF]
    18. Pumir , A; Xu , Ht; Boffetta , G; Falkovich , G; Bodenschatz , E (2014) Redistribution of kinetic energy in turbulent flows. Physical Review x 4 :
    19. Jason Laurie , Guido Boffetta , Gregory Falkovich , Igor Kolokolov , Vladimir Lebedev (2014) Universal profile of the vortex condensate in two-dimensional turbulence. Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 : 254503
    20. A Frishman and G Falkovich (2014) New type of anomaly in turbulence. Phys Rev Lett 113 : 024501[PDF]
    21. Punzmann , H; Francois , N; Xia , H; Falkovich , G; Shats , M (2014) Generation and reversal of surface flows by propagating waves. Nature Physics 10 : 658-663
    22. S Belan , I Fouxon , G Falkovich (2014) Localization-delocalization transition in turbophoresis of inertial particles. Phys Rev Lett 112 : 234502
    23. Gregory Falkovich and Anna Frishman (2013) Single flow snapshot reveals the future and the past of pairs of particles in turbulence. Phys Rev Lett 110 : 214502[PDF]
    24. Pearson Miller , Natalia Vladimirova , Gregory Falkovich (2013) Oscillations in a turbulence-condensate system. Phys. Rev. e 87 : 065202
    25. E. Turitsyna , S. Smirnov , S. Sugavanam , N. Tarasov , X. Chu. S. Babin , E. Podivilov , D. Churkin , G. Falkovich , S. Turitsyn (2013) The laminar–turbulent transition in a fibre laser. Nature Photonics 7 : 783–786
    26. R. Wagner , G. Falkovich , A. G. Kritsuk and M. L. Norman (2012) Flux correlations in supersonic isothermal turbulence. Journal of Fluid Mechanics : 1-9[PDF]
    27. G Falkovich ,Haitao Xu , A Pumir , E Bodenschatz , L Biferale , G Boffetta , A Lanotte , F Toschi (2012) On lagrangian single-particle statistics. Phys Fluids 24 : 055102[PDF]
    28. M Vucelja , G Falkovich & K S Turitsyn (2012) Fractal iso-contours of passive scalar in two-dimensional smooth random flows. J Stat Phys 147 : 424–435[PDF]
    29. E Turitsyna , G Falkovich , A El-Taher , Xuewen Shu , P Harper and S Turitsyn (2012) Optical turbulence and spectral condensate in long fibre lasers. Proc Royal Soc a 468 : 2496 -- 2508[PDF]
    30. N. Vladimirova , S. Derevyanko and G. Falkovich (2012) Phase transitions in wave turbulence. Phys Rev e 85 : 010101[PDF]
    31. Falkovich , G; Lebedev , V (2011) Vorticity statistics in the direct cascade of two-dimensional turbulence. Physical Review e 83 : [PDF]
    32. Xia , H; Byrne , D; Falkovich , G; Shats , M (2011) Upscale energy transfer in thick turbulent fluid layers. Nature Physics 7 : 321-324
    33. Falkovich G. and S. Musacchio (2010) Conformal invariance in inverse turbulent cascades. Arxiv:1012.3868 :
    34. Falkovich , G; Fouxon , I; Oz , Y (2010) New relations for correlation functions in navier-stokes turbulence. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 644 : 465-472[PDF]
    35. Xia , H. , Shats , M. & Falkovich , G (2009) Spectrally condensed turbulence in thin layers. Phys Fluids 21 : 125101[PDF]
    36. Falkovich , G (2009) Could waves mix the ocean?. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 638 : 1-4[PDF]
    37. Turitsyna , Eg; Falkovich , G; Mezentsev , Vk; Turitsyn , Sk (2009) Optical turbulence and spectral condensate in long-fiber lasers. Physical Review a 80 : [PDF]
    38. Xia , H; Shats , Mg; Punzmann , H; Falkovich , G (2009) Comment on "turbulence-condensate interaction in two dimensions" reply. Physical Review Letters 102 :
    39. Xia , H; Punzmann , H; Falkovich , G; Shats , Mg (2008) Turbulence-condensate interaction in two dimensions. Physical Review Letters 101 : [PDF]
    40. Derevyanko , S; Falkovich , G; Turitsyn , S (2008) Evolution of non-uniformly seeded warm clouds in idealized turbulent conditions. New Journal of Physics 10 : [PDF]
    41. Chetrite , R; Falkovich , G; Gawedzki , K (2008) Fluctuation relations in simple examples of non-equilibrium steady states. Journal of Statistical Mechanics-theory and Experiment : [PDF]
    42. Falkovich , G; Malinowski , S (2008) Focus on cloud physics. New Journal of Physics 10 :
    43. M. G. Shats , H. Xia , H. Punzmann and G. Falkovich (2007) Suppression of turbulence by self-generated and imposed mean flows. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 : 164502[PDF]
    44. Lukaschuk , S; Denissenko , P; Falkovich , G (2007) Nodal patterns of floaters in surface waves. European Physical Journal-special Topics 145 : 125-136[PDF]
    45. Bernard , D; Boffetta , G; Celani , A; Falkovich , G (2007) Inverse turbulent cascades and conformally invariant curves. Physical Review Letters 98 : [PDF]
    46. Derevyanko , Sa; Falkovich , G; Turitsyn , K; Turitsyn , S (2007) Lagrangian and eulerian descriptions of inertial particles in random flows. Journal of Turbulence 8 : 1-18[PDF]
    47. Falkovich , G; Afonso , Mm (2007) Fluid-particle separation in a random flow described by the telegraph model. Physical Review e 76 : [PDF]
    48. Vucelja , M; Falkovich , G; Fouxon , I (2007) Clustering of matter in waves and currents. Physical Review e 75 : [PDF]
    49. Falkovich , G; Pumir , A (2007) Sling effect in collisions of water droplets in turbulent clouds. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 64 : 4497-4505[PDF]
    50. Falkovich , G (2007) Nodal lines in turbulence. European Physical Journal-special Topics 145 : 211-216
    51. Falkovich , G; Musacchio , S; Piterbarg , L; Vucelja , M (2007) Inertial particles driven by a telegraph noise. Physical Review e 76 : [PDF]
    52. Falkovich , G; Stepanov , Mg; Vucelja , M (2006) Rain initiation time in turbulent warm clouds. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 45 : 591-599[PDF]
    53. Bernard , D; Boffetta , G; Celani , A; Falkovich , G (2006) Conformal invariance in two-dimensional turbulence. Nature Physics 2 : 124-128[PDF]
    54. Denissenko , P; Falkovich , G; Lukaschuk , S (2006) How waves affect the distribution of particles that float on a liquid surface. Physical Review Letters 97 : [PDF]
    55. Lukaschuk , S; Denissenko , P; Falkovich , G (2006) Clustering of floating particles by surface waves. Journal of Low Temperature Physics 145 : 297-310
    56. A. Celani , G. Falkovich , A. Mazzino , A. Seminara (2005) Droplet condensation in turbulent flows. Europhys. Lett. 70 : 775
    57. Falkovich , G; Weinberg , A; Denissenko , P; Lukaschuk , S (2005) Floater clustering in a standing wave. Nature 435 : 1045-1046[PDF]
    58. Falkovich , G; Fouxon , A (2005) Anomalous scaling of a passive scalar in turbulence and in equilibrium. Physical Review Letters 94 : [PDF]
    59. Falkovich , G; Shlomo , D (2005) Evolution of a passive scalar spectrum in the flow of random waves. Physical Review e 71 :
    60. Gregory Falkovich and Alexander Fouxon (2004) Entropy production and extraction in dynamical systems and turbulence. New Journal of Physics 6 : 50
    61. Balk , Am; Falkovich , G; Stepanov , Mg (2004) Growth of density inhomogeneities in a flow of wave turbulence. Physical Review Letters 92 : [PDF]
    62. Falkovich , G; Fouxon , A (2004) Entropy production and extraction in dynamical systems and turbulence. New Journal of Physics 6 :
    63. Falkovich , G; Pumir , A (2004) Intermittent distribution of heavy particles in a turbulent flow. Physics of Fluids 16 : L47-L50[PDF]
    64. Falkovich , G; Fouxon , A; Stepanov , M (2003) Statistics of turbulence-induced fluctuations of particle concentration. Sedimentation and Sediment Transport, Proceedings : 155-158
    65. Falkovich , G; Stepanov , Mg (2002) Role of interaction in causing errors in optical soliton transmission. Optics Letters 27 : 13-15[PDF]
    66. Falkovich , G; Fouxon , A; Stepanov , Mg (2002) Acceleration of rain initiation by cloud turbulence. Nature 419 : 151-154[PDF]
    67. Pasquero , C; Falkovich , G (2002) Stationary spectrum of vorticity cascade in two-dimensional turbulence. Physical Review e 65 :
    68. Falkovich , Ge; Stepanov , Mg; Turitsyn , Sk (2001) Statistics of interacting optical solitons. Physical Review e 64 :
    69. Balkovsky , E; Falkovich , G; Fouxon , A (2001) Intermittent distribution of inertial particles in turbulent flows. Physical Review Letters 86 : 2790-2793[PDF]
    70. Falkovich , Ge; Kolokolov , I; Lebedev , V; Turitsyn , Sk (2001) Statistics of soliton-bearing systems with additive noise. Physical Review e 63 :
    71. Nazarenko , Sv; Falkovich , Ge; Galtier , S (2001) Feedback of a small-scale magnetic dynamo. Physical Review e 63 :
    72. G. E. Falkovich , I. Kolokolov , V. Lebedev and S. K. Turitsyn (2001) Statistics of soliton-bearing systems with additive noise. Phys. Rev. e 63 : 025601(R)[PDF]
    73. E Balkovsky , Gregory Falkovich , A Fouxon (2001) Intermittent distribution of inertial particles in turbulent flows. Physical Review Letters 86 : 2790
    74. Balkovsky , E; Falkovich , G; Lebedev , V; Lysiansky , M (1999) Large-scale properties of passive scalar advection. Physics of Fluids 11 : 2269-2279
    75. Chertkov , M; Falkovich , G; Kolokolov , I; Vergassola , M (1999) Small-scale turbulent dynamo. Physical Review Letters 83 : 4065-4068
    76. Falkovich , G (1998) Intermittent dissipation in developed turbulence. Advances in Turbulence Vii 46 : 207-210
    77. Chertkov , M; Falkovich , G; Kolokolov , I (1998) Intermittent dissipation of a passive scalar in turbulence. Physical Review Letters 80 : 2121-2124
    78. Balkovsky , E; Falkovich , G (1998) Two complementary descriptions of intermittency. Physical Review e 57 : R1231-R1234
    79. Falkovich , G; Kazakov , V; Lebedev , V (1998) Particle dispersion in a multidimensional random flow with arbitrary temporal correlations. Physica a 249 : 36-46[PDF]
    80. Falkovich , G; Lebedev , V (1997) Single-point velocity distribution in turbulence. Physical Review Letters 79 : 4159-4161[PDF]
    81. Balkovsky , E; Falkovich , G; Kolokolov , I; Lebedev , V (1997) Viscous instanton for burgers' turbulence. International Journal of Modern Physics b 11 : 3223-3245
    82. Balkovsky , E; Falkovich , G; Lebedev , V (1997) Three-point correlation function of a scalar mixed by an almost smooth random velocity field. Physical Review e 55 : R4881-R4884
    83. Balkovsky , E; Falkovich , G; Kolokolov , I; Lebedev , V (1997) Intermittency of burgers' turbulence. Physical Review Letters 78 : 1452-1455[PDF]
    84. Falkovich , G; Lebedev , V (1996) Exact results on scaling exponents in the 2d enstrophy cascade - comment. Physical Review Letters 76 : 1974
    85. Falkovich , G; Kolokolov , I; Lebedev , V; Migdal , A (1996) Instantons and intermittency. Physical Review e 54 : 4896-4907
    86. Chertkov , M; Falkovich , G; Kolokolov , I; Lebedev , V (1996) Theory of random advection in two dimensions. International Journal of Modern Physics b 10 : 2273-2309
    87. Dyachenko , A; Falkovich , G (1996) Condensate turbulence in two dimensions. Physical Review e 54 : 5095-5099
    88. Chertkov , M; Falkovich , G; Lebedev , V (1996) Nonuniversality of the scaling exponents of a passive scalar convected by a random flow. Physical Review Letters 76 : 3707-3710
    89. Falkovich , G; Meyer , M (1996) Two-dimensional acoustic turbulence. Physical Review e 54 : 4431-4434
    90. Chertkov M and Falkovich G (1996) Anomalous scaling exponents of a white-advected passive scalar. Physical Review Letters 76 : 2706--2709
    91. Balkovsky , E; FALKOVICH , G; LEBEDEV , V; SHAPIRO , Iy (1995) Large-scale properties of wave turbulence. Physical Review e 52 : 4537-4540
    92. Falkovich , G; LVOV , Vs (1995) Isotropic and anisotropic turbulence in clebsch variables. Chaos Solitons & Fractals 5 : 1855-1869
    93. Chertkov , M; FALKOVICH , G; KOLOKOLOV , I; LEBEDEV , V (1995) Statistics of a passive scalar advected by a large-scale 2-dimensional velocity-field - analytic solution. Physical Review e 51 : 5609-5627
    94. Falkovich , Ge; SHAPIRO , Iy; SHTILMAN , L (1995) Decay turbulence of capillary waves. Europhysics Letters 29 : 1-6
    95. Falkovich , G; SHAFARENKO , A; WILFORD , G (1995) Joint behavior of inertio-gravity and rossby waves. Physica d 87 : 285-289
    96. Falkovich , Ge; SHAPIRO , Iy; SHTILMAN , L (1995) 2 stages of decay turbulence of capillary waves. International Journal of Non-linear Mechanics 30 : 609-616
    97. Chertkov , M; FALKOVICH , G; KOLOKOLOV , I; LEBEDEV , V (1995) Normal and anomalous scaling of the 4th-order correlation-function of a randomly advected passive scalar. Physical Review e 52 : 4924-4941
    98. Falkovich , G; LEBEDEV , V (1994) Universal direct cascade in 2-dimensional turbulence. Physical Review e 50 : 3883-3899
    99. Falkovich , G (1994) Turbulence with an infinite number of conservation-laws. Physical Review e 49 : 2468-2471
    100. Chertkov , M; FALKOVICH , G (1994) Structural instability of 2-dimensional turbulence. Physica d 78 : 11-29
    101. Falkovich , G (1994) Bottleneck phenomenon in developed turbulence. Physics of Fluids 6 : 1411-1414[PDF]
    102. Falkovich , G; LEBEDEV , V (1994) Nonlocal vorticity cascade in 2 dimensions. Physical Review e 49 : R1800-R1804
    103. Falkovich , G; Kuznetsov , E; Medvedev , S (1994) Nonlinear interaction between long inertio-gravity and rossby waves. Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics 1 : 168-171
    104. Larraza , A; FALKOVICH , G (1993) Collective modes in open systems of nonlinear random waves. Physical Review b 48 : 9855-9857
    105. Falkovich , Ge (1993) Revised universality concept in the theory of turbulence. Nonlinear Waves and Weak Turbulence With Applications in Oceanography and Condensed Matter Physics 11 : 19-44
    106. Falkovich , G; HANANY , A (1993) Is 2d turbulence a conformal turbulence. Physical Review Letters 71 : 3454-3457
    107. Falkovich , Ge (1993) Singularities of the velocity-field and interaction locality of turbulence. Singularities in Fluids, Plasmas, and Optics 404 : 75-91
    108. Lvov , V; FALKOVICH , G (1992) Counterbalanced interaction locality of developed hydrodynamic turbulence. Physical Review a 46 : 4762-4772
    109. Lvov , Vs; FALKOVICH , Ge (1992) Conservation-laws and 2-flux spectra of hydrodynamic convective turbulence. Physica d 57 : 85-95
    110. Falkovich , G (1992) Inverse cascade and wave condensate in mesoscale atmospheric-turbulence. Physical Review Letters 69 : 3173-3176
    111. Falkovich , Ge; SPECTOR , Md (1992) Nonlocal angular instability of a kolmogorov-like wave turbulence spectrum. Physics Letters a 168 : 127-132
    112. Falkovich , Ge; MEDVEDEV , Sb (1992) Kolmogorov-like spectrum for turbulence of inertial-gravity waves. Europhysics Letters 19 : 279-284
    113. Falkovich , Ge; RYZHENKOVA , Iv (1992) Kolmogorov spectra of langmuir and optical turbulence. Physics of Fluids B-plasma Physics 4 : 594-598[PDF]
    114. Falkovich G and Shafarenko A (1991) Nonstationary wave turbulence. J Nonlinear Science 1 : 457-480[PDF]
    115. Ryzhenkova IV , Fal'kovich GE (1990) Effect of dissipation on the structure of a stationary wave turbulence spectrum. Zh Eksp Teor Fiz 98 : 1931-1940
    116. Fal'kovich GE (1990) On the impossibility of weakly damped 2nd sound in turbulent media. Zh Eksp Teor Fiz 97 : 1847-1851
    117. S. Lukashchuk , G. Fal'kovich , A. Chernykh (1989) Calculation of the dimensions of attractors from experimental data. Journal of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics 30 (1) : 95-100[PDF]
    118. Fal'kovich GE , Shafarenko AV (1988) What is the energy flux carried off by the weak turbulence kolmogorov spectrum. Zh Eksp Teor Fiz 94 : 172-179
    119. Fal'kovich GE , Shafarenko AV (1988) On the influence of weak anisotropy of pump on kolmogorov spectrum of acoustic turbulence. Doklady Akademii Nauk 301 : 297-300
    120. Fal'kovich GE , Shafarenko AV (1987) On the stability of kolmogorov spectra of a weak turbulence. Physica d 27 : 399-411
    121. Fal'kovich GE (1987) The stability of kolmogorov weak-turbulence spectra. Zh Eksp Teor Fiz 93 : 172-177
    122. Lutovinov VS , Fal'kovich GE , Cherepanov VB (1986) Nonequilibrium distribution of quasi-particles under parametric-excitation of magnons in an antiferromagnet with a decay spectrum . Zh Eksp Teor Fiz 90 : 1781-1794
    123. Turitsyn SK , Fal'kovich GE (1985) Stability of magnetoelastic solitons and self-focusing of sound in antiferromagnetics. Zh Eksp Teor Fiz 89 : 258-270
    124. Lavrinenko AV , Melkov GA , Fal'kovich GE (1984) Mutual influence of kinetic and parametric methods of excitation of spin-waves. Zh Eksp Teor Fiz 87 : 205-211
    125. Fal'kovich GE (1984) Nontrivial relaxation of a narrow packet during three-wave interaction. Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics 27 : 122-127[PDF]
    126. Kuznetsov E , Spector M and Falkovich G (1984) On the stability of nonlinear waves in integrable models. Physica d 10 : 379-386[PDF]
    127. Fal'kovich GE , Spector MD , Turitsyn SK (1983) Destruction of stationary solutions and collapse in the non-linear string equation. Physics Letters a 99 : 271-274
    128. Kuznetsov E.A. and Falkovich G.E (1981) On the stability of a self-similar solution in the burgers equation.. Physics Letters 86 : 203-4[PDF]
    129. Fal'kovich GE (1981) On non-linear theory of dielectric-relaxation in crystals. Fizika Tverdogo Tela 23 : 324-326
    130. Lvov VS , Falkovich GE (1981) Anisotropic spectra of weak sound turbulence. Zh Eksp Teor Fiz 80, 593; Sov Phys Jetp 53 : 2
    131. Kuznetsov , E. A.; Spektor , M. D.; Falkovich , G. E. (1979) Stability of weak shock waves. Jetp Letters 30 : 303-305

    1. Falkovich , G; Kritsuk , Ag (2017) How vortices and shocks provide for a flux loop in two-dimensional compressible turbulence. Physical Review Fluids 2 :