(2021) The Israel Chemist and Chemical Engineer. 8, p. 25-29 Abstract
Women continue to represent a small proportion of faculty members in science and technology programs, especially in more prestigious
research institutions. They still need to cope with discrimination, with an unconscious bias, as well as with the demands of their families.
According to UNESCO institution of Statistics, fewer than 30% researchers all over the world are women. The analysis of “A Global Approach to the
Gender Gap in Mathematical, Computing, and Natural Sciences, How to measure it? How to reduce it?” survey, contributed to the understanding of
this phenomenon and to the identification of the various factors causing it. The recommendations address a variety of groups: instructors and
parents of girls in primary, secondary, and higher education; educational organizations; Scientific Unions and other worldwide organizations.
This paper will deal with the situation of women scientists in Israel, with examples of women chemists in academia.
International collaborative follow-up investigation of graduating high school students' understandings of the nature of scientific inquiry: is progress Being made?(2021) International Journal of Science Education. 43, 7, p. 991-1016 Abstract[All authors]
Understandings of the nature of scientific inquiry (NOSI), as opposed to engaging students in inquiry learning experiences, are included in science education reform documents around the world. However, little is known about what students have learned about NOSI during their pre-college school years. The purpose of this large-scale follow-up international project (i.e. 32 countries and regions, spanning six continents and including 3917 students for the high school sample) was to collect data on what exiting high school students have learned about NOSI. Additionally, the study investigated changes in 12th grade students' NOSI understandings compared to seventh grade (i.e. 20 countries and regions) students' understandings from a prior investigation [Lederman et al. (2019). An international collaborative investigation of beginning seventh grade students' understandings of scientific inquiry: Establishing a baseline. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 56(4), 486-515. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.21512]. This study documents and discusses graduating high school students' understandings and compares their understandings to seventh grade students' understandings of the same aspects of scientific inquiry for each country. It is important to note that collecting data from each of the 130+ countries globally was not feasible. Similarly, it was not possible to collect data from every region of each country. A concerted effort was made, however, to provide a relatively representative picture of each country and the world.
(2020) Chemistry Teacher International. 3, 1, p. 1-8 Abstract
The use of the historical approach in teaching science has been studied for many years. Many researchers claimed that this approach has the power to improve students’ understanding of the nature of science (NOS) by emphasizing not only the products of science but also the evolution of its ideas. In this paper we will deal with historical stories which were integrated into the science curriculum of primary, middle, and secondary school students. Integrating short historical stories in science teaching is a pedagogical approach in which teachers use the chronological story of scientific discoveries and the evolution of scientific ideas in order to render students’ perceptions of the conceptual aspects of science, its processes and contexts more accurately. The stories in this paper refer to discoveries by four scientists: Galvani (the discovery of the electrical current), Fleming (the discovery of penicillin), Archimedes (the discovery of the floating principle), and Kekulé (the discovery of the structure of the benzene ring). At the completion of enacting this curriculum, the students were asked to write their reflections. By reading the students’ reflections we found out that they noticed that certain circumstances must be present in order to enable a scientist to make his discovery.
Correction to: Posing Researchable Questions in Mathematics and Science Education: Purposefully Questioning the Questions for Investigation(2020) International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education. 18, Suppl 1, p. 9-10 Abstract
The original version of this article unfortunately contains correction.
Posing Researchable Questions in Mathematics and Science Education: Purposefully Questioning the Questions for Investigation(2020) International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education. SUPPL 1, p. 1-7 Abstract
(2020) Chemistry Education for a Sustainable Society Volume 1. Middlecamp C. H., Peterman K. E. & Obare S. O.(eds.). p. 69-78 Abstract
Issues of sustainable development have been suggested as a way to contextualize chemistry learning for relevant chemistry education. Over the last 25 years, chemistry educators in Israel developed and researched learning materials for high school chemistry studies, incorporating inquiry-type socio-scientific issues from chemical industry and green chemistry. The goal was to educate for sustainable development and environmental awareness using science inquiry learning (e.g., asking questions, hypothesizing, drawing conclusions, and argumentation). These learning materials were developed both for students and for teachers, integrating chemistry with environment, health, economic and societal aspects. They include high school chemistry textbooks and booklets for learning modules such as "The Water and Us", which were developed together with teachers and doctoral students. Each module was implemented according to three stages: Starting with a socio-scientific issue, continuing with an inquiry-type approach, and ending with a societal discussion. Based on the reflections of students and teachers, we may conclude that these learning materials motivate and promote chemistry learning as well as sustainable educational skills. In addition, they learned how complex such evaluations are and how many dimensions need to be taken into consideration before an overall decision can be made.
Identifying systems thinking components in the school science curricular standards of four countries(2019) Journal of Chemical Education. 96, 12, p. 2814-2824 Abstract
Chemistry plays an important role in developing scientific theories to describe, explain, and predict the physical world and to produce useful products for improving quality of life throughout history. To arouse student awareness of the value and importance of learning chemistry and becoming chemistry literate, we propose an application of systems thinking for the practice of chemistry education. The underlying goals of the systems thinking learning strategy proposed in this article are to help students build core knowledge of chemistry, construct interconnections of chemical concepts, understand the process- and purpose-based nature of systems thinking, and develop appropriate actions for the sustainability of the environment. The conceptual framework includes understanding system structure, complex behavior, and systems at different scales in chemistry and enhancing the interactions and impacts of these aspects, which are used to analyze the chemistry curricular standards in high schools in Israel, the Netherlands, Taiwan, and the United States. The results show that there is an international trend to enhance students' thinking of interconnections of concepts and relevance in chemistry, yet the degree of emphasis varies. With such an approach to promoting systems thinking, we expect students to better understand chemistry, link their knowledge and skills in chemistry to contexts, and appreciate the contribution of chemistry in sustainable development as global citizens.
(2019) Chemistry Teacher International. 2, 1, Abstract
Two different approaches for chemistry education are presented in this paper: teaching and learning chemistry through contemporary research and using a historical approach. Essential dimensions in science education are used to study the differences between the two approaches. This includes the rationale of each approach, the scientific content, as well as students’ and teachers’ perspectives. At first glance, the two approaches look different and even contradict each other. However, a deeper investigation shows that there are common themes that connect the two approaches. Chemistry education is used to represent the historical approach and Nanoscale Science and Teachnology (NST) in chemistry education is used as the context for learning science through a contemporary research approach. The paper can be used by chemistry teachers as a preliminary guide for consideration of adapting one of these approaches in their class.
The Influences of Global Trends in Teaching and Learning Chemistry on the Chemistry Curriculum in Israel(2019) Israel Journal of Chemistry. 59, 6-7, p. 618-624 Abstract
I this paper, we survey and focus on developments in the chemistry curriculum in Israel over the past 70 years, as influenced by changes and reforms in the curricula around the world and specifically in the United States, by political, cultural and socio-economic factors, scientific and technological innovations, and theories and studies in learning and teaching. The mentioned studies refer also to the influence of the learners, the teachers, the content, the pedagogy of teaching and learning both in and out of school, and the assessment of students' achievement on the curriculum changes. Three periods of changes are discussed in the chemistry curriculum in Israel, from the 1960s to the beginning of the 21(st) century, as influenced by the above factors.
(2019) Israel Journal of Chemistry. 59, 6-7, p. 514-523 Abstract
Over a period of more than 60 years, the chemistry laboratory has been extensively and comprehensively researched and hundreds of research papers, reviews, and doctoral dissertations have been published, investigating the laboratory as a unique learning environment. However, there were challenges and pedagogical questions regarding its educational effectiveness and benefits for teaching and learning chemistry. At the beginning of the 21(st) century there was a call to rethink (and research) the goals for learning chemistry in the laboratory. This is especially applicable in an era in which we are trying to enhance the goal of teaching "chemistry for all students" and/or for the benefit of what is fondly called "future citizens". Working for more than 15 years with colleagues and students, we researched the potential of establishing an inquiry-type chemistry laboratory for developing high-order learning skills, namely, skills for the future or skills for life, including metacognitive and argumentative skills, and the ability of students to ask relevant questions resulting from an inquiry-type chemistry laboratory.
An international collaborative investigation of beginning seventh grade students' understandings of scientific inquiry: Establishing a baseline(2019) Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 56, 4, p. 486-515 Abstract[All authors]
Although understandings of scientific inquiry (as opposed to conducting inquiry) are included in science education reform documents around the world, little is known about what students have learned about inquiry during their elementary school years. This is partially due to the lack of any assessment instrument to measure understandings about scientific inquiry. However, a valid and reliable assessment has recently been developed and published, Views About Scientific Inquiry (VASI; Lederman et al. , Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 51, 65-83). The purpose of this large-scale international project was to collect the first baseline data on what beginning middle school students have learned about scientific inquiry during their elementary school years. Eighteen countries/regions spanning six continents including 2,634 students participated in the study. The participating countries/regions were: Australia, Brazil, Chile, Egypt, England, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, Mainland China, New Zealand, Nigeria, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, Turkey, and the United States. In many countries, science is not formally taught until middle school, which is the rationale for choosing seventh grade students for this investigation. This baseline data will simultaneously provide information on what, if anything, students learn about inquiry in elementary school, as well as their beginning knowledge as they enter secondary school. It is important to note that collecting data from all of the approximately 200 countries globally was not humanly possible, and it was also not possible to collect data from every region of each country. The results overwhelmingly show that students around the world at the beginning of grade seven have very little understandings about scientific inquiry. Some countries do show reasonable understandings in certain aspects but the overall picture of understandings of scientific inquiry is not what is hoped for after completing 6 years of elementary education in any country.
Factors Affecting the Study of Chemistry in Different Countries Around the World: Findings from an International Survey(2019) Israel Journal of Chemistry. 59, 6-7, p. 625-634 Abstract
Improving teaching and student learning in chemistry classrooms is an important goal that is constantly researched. Several comparative studies of science teaching have been carried out on different parameters, e. g. misconceptions which science teachers and students may have regarding the scientific concepts they learn and teach. Here we describe science teaching in general, and chemistry teaching in particular, in 12 countries including Israel. Different parameters are compared, including the hours that are devoted to science, the subjects included, the pedagogy, and teachers ' salaries. The survey covers all school levels: elementary school, secondary school and high school. At the high-school level, the comparison focused on chemistry studies. In this study the variances variables, such as the hours that are allocated for science teaching, did not show an appreciable effect on students ' achievements. It was also found that, in countries where chemistry studies at the high-school level are not mandatory, innovative pedagogies are more likely to replace the traditional chemistry teaching methods where chemistry is taught according to the structure of the subject based on basic concepts that underlie the curriculum. The study provided an additional support to the importance of the professional development of science and chemistry teachers and suggest that the autonomy that is given to them could influence the quality of science teaching and students ' achievements.
Professional development of chemistry teachers: theory and practice(2018) Abstract
Continuous professional development of chemistry teachers is essential for any effective chemistry teaching due to the evolving nature of the subject matter and its instructional techniques. Professional development aims to keep chemistry teaching up-to-date and to make it more meaningful, more educationally effective, and better aligned to current requirements. Presenting models and examples of professional development for chemistry teachers, from pre-service preparation through to continuous professional development, the authors walk the reader through theory and practice. The authors discuss factors which affect successful professional development, such as workload, availability and time constraints, and consider how we maintain the life-long learning of chemistry teachers. With a solid grounding in the literature and drawing on many examples from the authors' rich experiences, this book enables researchers and educators to better understand teachers' roles in effective chemistry education and the importance of their professional development.
With a solid grounding in the literature and drawing on many examples from the authors' rich experiences, this book enables researchers and educators to better understand teachers' roles in effective chemistry education and the importance of their professional development.
(2018) Educational Action Research. 28, 4, p. 480-495 Abstract
Action research is suggested as a way to engage teachers in curriculum development and the betterment of teaching practices in schools based on educational research activities. As in other educational domains, action research in science education is employed with both aims to better understand and develop teaching practices and to contribute to teacher continuous professional development. A variety of methodological approaches using action research in science education exists, from more technical toward more emancipatory interpretations. The range of educational settings and goals for which action research is performed is also quite broad. The purpose of this analytical review of the international available literature is to provide an overview of the main aspects in applying action research in science education.
Using the Action Research rationale to enhance the creation of teachers’ Professional Learning Communities (PLCs)(2018) ARISE. 1, 1, p. 27-32 Abstract
Creating teachers’ professional learning communities (PLCs) is an effective bottom-up way of bringing innovation into the science curriculum and professional development. The models of PLCs are based on principles of learning that emphasize the co-construction of knowledge by learners, who in this case are the teachers themselves. Teachers in a PLC meet regularly to explore their practices and the learning outcomes of their students, conduct action research activities - analyze their teaching and their students’ learning processes, draw conclusions, and make changes in order to improve their teaching and the learning of their students. It was found that participation in an action research workshop in the framework of PLC, influences teaching practice, so teachers become more student-centered. Moreover, the teaching culture improves as the community increases the degree of cooperation among teachers, as well as the creation of transformative pedagogy, focusing on the processes of learning rather than the accumulation of knowledge. This enables students to be innovative, creative, and critical. In addition, trust is developed among the participants, which enables them to discuss and analyze their students’ cognitive and affective problems, misconceptions, and learning outcomes, towards adapting a transformative pedagogy to teaching.
Teachers' views on implementing storytelling as a way to motivate inquiry learning in high-school chemistry teaching(2017) Chemistry Education Research and Practice. 18, 2, p. 304-309 Abstract
Educational research and policy suggest inquiry as one of the most prominent ways of promoting effective science education. However, traditional approaches towards inquiry learning are not always sufficiently motivating for all learners. The EU-funded project, TEMI – Teaching Enquiry with Mysteries Incorporated, suggests that mysterious scientific phenomena introduced via drama-based pedagogies and showmanship skills could have the potential to engage more students emotionally in science and to entice them to solve the mysteries through inquiry. This paper reports teachers’ views on using storytelling in connection with mysteries in the science classroom. The data stem from a case of chemistry teachers’ continuous professional development within the TEMI project in Israel. Data were collected from 14 teachers by means of a questionnaire, interviews, observations, and written reflection essays. The case discusses teachers’ views on the benefits and difficulties of using story-based science inquiry activities.
Teachers' views on implementing storytelling as a way to motivate inquiry learning in high-school chemistry teaching.
Learning about teaching the extracurricular topic of nanotechnology as a vehicle for achieving a sustainable change in science education(2016) International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education. 14, p. 345-372 Abstract
This study focused on teachers' transfer of a variety of teaching methods from a teaching module on nanotechnology, which is an example of a topic outside the science curriculum, to teaching topics that are part of the chemistry curriculum. Nanotechnology is outside the science curriculum, but it was used in this study as a means to carry out a change in the way chemistry teachers teach. The participants in the study included nine high school in-service chemistry teachers. Three research tools were used: (1) semistructured interviews that were conducted with the teachers, after they had finished teaching their nanotechnology module, and follow-up semistructured interviews that were conducted 2 years after the teachers had taught the nanotechnology module , and teachers' assessment and evaluation of their own teaching method, determining how the nanotechnology modules influenced the students who learned according to this program. The data collection process continued for 5 years. Most of the teachers indicated that they continued teaching the nanotechnology module that they designed and all of them stated that they integrated the unique teaching methods into their teaching of chemistry. High efficacy beliefs were built based on the self-evaluation process that was part of the teachers' professional development program. Teaching self-efficacy beliefs and organization efficacy beliefs was found to contribute to teachers' sustainable changes. The findings in the current research are only limited to the topic of nanotechnology; however, we believe that similar results can be obtained for any modern scientific topic that is outside the high school science curriculum. We suggest that more research should be done to determine whether the same findings emerge by using the same approach but on another topic.
One country, two cultures - a multi-perspective view on Israeli chemistry teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning(2016) TEACHERS AND TEACHING. 22, 2, p. 131-147 Abstract
This paper presents a study focusing on differences in Israeli Jewish and Arab chemistry teachers' beliefs regarding teaching and learning of chemistry in the upper secondary schools. Israel is a country experiencing the problems of diverse cultural orientation of its inhabitants but applying the same educational system to its diverse cultural sectors. Education includes the same curriculum in chemistry for both the Israeli Jewish and Arab cultural sectors as well as final examinations (matriculation) set centrally by the Ministry of Education. Thus, this study can serve as a striking case for other countries facing similar cultural diversity. The study is based on two different instruments that are both qualitative and quantitative in nature. The qualitative data stem from chemistry teachers' drawings of themselves as teachers in a typical classroom situation accompanied by four open questions. The data analysis follows three qualitative scales: beliefs about classroom organization, beliefs about teaching objectives and epistemological beliefs. A quantitative study gives insights into teachers' beliefs about what characterizes good education. The main goal of the present paper is to determine whether both groups of chemistry teachers with different sociocultural background in Israel hold different views about education in general and chemistry education in particular. The findings provide evidence that in Israeli chemistry classrooms, the beliefs of Arabic teachers differ from those of the Jewish teachers, although both groups live in the same country and operate the same educational system.
The Israeli TEMI case: Adaptation of TEMI modules to the local context(2016) Chemistry in Action. 107, p. 33-36 Abstract
In Israel, the TEMI team at the Weizmann Institute of Science led two types of training programs: One which was open to all chemistry and science teachers (four cohorts), and the other which was part of a chemistry teachers' course at the Weizmann Institute (two cohorts). Overall, 120 teachers underwent intensive TEMI training at the Weizmann institute. The teachers were recruited through: (1) personal communication (via teachers who have undergone a CPD course at the Weizmann Institute previously), (2) the National Center for Chemistry Teacher, and (3) advertising in appropriate local science education websites. [first paragraph]
(2015) Eurasia Journal Of Mathematics Science And Technology Education. 11, 5, p. 923-936 Abstract
The current study deals with freshman students who study at the Department of Science at the Faculty of Education. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of teaching electrochemistry concepts using Predict-Observe-Explain (POE) strategy. The study was quasi-experimental design using 20 students each in the experimental group (EG) and control group (CG). An Open-Ended Test (OET) and Multiple Choice Test (MCT) were used as pre- and post-test respectively. The POE was used to treat the experimental group, post test scores showed a statistically significant difference in performance by the EG, which had less misconception. The results of this study suggest that using The POE strategy is conceptual understanding.
QUESTIONING BEHAVIOR OF STUDENTS IN THE INQUIRY CHEMISTRY LABORATORY: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SECTORS AND GENDERS IN THE ISRAELI CONTEXT(2015) International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education. 13, p. 705-732 Abstract
The present research is part of a longitude research study regarding the questioning behavior of students in the inquiry chemistry laboratory in Israel. We found that students who were involved in learning chemistry by the inquiry method ask more and higher-level questions. However, throughout the years, we have observed that differences between the two groups of students, control and the inquiry, have been reduced. The results of our study indicated that the gap between the Jewish and Arab students regarding their questioning ability is minor and inconsistent. If we assume that the source of this difference lies in the culture and different standards for teachers' qualifications in the two sectors, our current results suggested that the differences between chemistry teachers in the two sectors are now diminished. Teachers from both sectors utilized the inquiry program as part of their teaching repertoire, and the students in the two sectors learned the inquiry skill of asking questions.
The Philosophical Works of Ludwik Fleck and Their Potential Meaning for Teaching and Learning Science(2015) Science & Education. 24, p. 281-298 Abstract
This paper discusses essential elements of the philosophical works of Ludwik Fleck (1896-1961) and their potential interpretation for the teaching and learning of science. In the early twentieth century, Fleck made substantial contributions to understanding the sociological character of the nature of science and explaining the embedding of science in society. His works have several parallels to the later and very popular work, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, by Thomas S. Kuhn, although Kuhn only indirectly referred to the influence of Fleck on his own theories. Starting from a short review of the life of Ludwik Fleck, his philosophical work and its connections to Kuhn, this paper elaborates upon and illustrates how his theories can be considered for science education in order to provide learners with a better understanding of the nature of scientific endeavor and the bi-directional science-to-society links.
(2015) Relevant Chemistry Education. Rotterdam: . p. 219-240 Abstract
According to Stuckey, Hofstein, Mamlok-Naaman, and Eilks (2013) relevance can be considered to consist of three different dimensions: individual, societal, and vocational relevance (see prologue in this book). For chemistry teaching this means that relevant education must contribute to students' intellectual skill development, promote learners' competency for current and future societal participation, and address learners' vocational awareness and understanding of career chances.
Professional development of chemistry teachers for relevant chemistry education(2015) Relevant Chemistry Education: From Theory to Practice. p. 369-386 Abstract
Throughout the last 60 years the goals and objectives for science teaching and learning have undergone changes many times, often leading to reforms in the way the science curriculum was developed, taught, and learned. Five key factors influence a change in curriculum goals: The learners (target population), the teachers, the science content, the context of learning and teaching both in and out of school, as well as the assessment of students' achievement and progress. 2015 Sense Publishers. All Rights Reserved.
Learning about Sustainable Development in Socio-Scientific Issues-Based Chemistry Lessons on Fuels and Bioplastics(2015) Worldwide Trends in Green Chemistry Education. p. 45-60 Abstract
This chapter discusses the application of socio-scientific issues (SSI)-based science education in the secondary chemistry classroom. Issues of sustainable development are suggested to contextualize chemistry learning. If this is operated in an SSI-based approach controversial issues from the sustainability debate are used to motivate chemistry learning under thorough inclusion of a societal perspective. Apart from chemistry content learning the lessons focus on an understanding of how society is dealing with developments in chemistry and technology. Examples will be presented from secondary chemistry teaching in Israel and Germany. Alternative fuels and bioplastics will serve as examples. The discussion will show that a combination of SSI-based science teaching with issues of sustainable development offers a fruitful approach to motivate chemistry learning and contribute to the development of general educational skills.
(2015) Educació Química: EduQ. 21, 1, p. 13-19 Abstract
El coneixement de l'enllaç químic és essencial per comprendre gairebé qualsevol tema de química. Tanmateix, és molt difícil d'aprendre i els estudiants tenen una gran quantitat de concepcions alternatives en relació amb aquest concepte. Amb l'objectiu de millorar la comprensió dels estudiants entorn d'aquest concepte, és essencial revisar el contingut científic, l'enfocament pedagògic i els mètodes d'avaluació. En aquest article, revisem dos estudis. El primer es refereix als aspectes que han determinat les concepcions alternatives dels estudiants respecte del tema de l'estructura i l'enllaç químic, i l'altre es refereix als nous mètodes d'ensenyar el concepte enllaç químic, així com a les activitats d'avaluació.
Developing and Implementing Inquiry-Based, Water Quality Laboratory Experiments for High School Students To Explore Real Environmental Issues Using Analytical Chemistry(2014) Journal of Chemical Education. 91, 4, p. 492-496 Abstract
This paper describes the rationale and the implementation of five laboratory experiments; four of them, intended for high-school students, are inquiry-based activities that explore the quality of water. The context of water provides students with an opportunity to study the importance of analytical methods and how they influence our everyday lives. It also provides an opportunity to expose students to scientific methods (e.g., inquiry) and behavioral responsibility that could influence their future lives as citizens. The inquiry-based activities consist of two parts. In the preliminary experiment, an analytical technique was introduced and the students learned analytical skills. On the basis of these, preliminary experiments, the students designed inquiry-based laboratory experiments involving relevant questions and decision making. Students explored parameters concerning water quality from different sources and had an opportunity to evaluate the data critically and to answer questions such as the following: Should we drink bottled water or tap water? How is the water quality monitored? What does water contain? The experiments involve qualitative and quantitative analyses of water salinity, water hardness, and the presence of organic compounds (volumetric versus spectrophotometric analysis of chloride in water), as well as determining water hardness by EDTA complexometric titration and water filtration.
(2013) Studies in Science Education. 49, 1, p. 1-34 Abstract
Relevance' is one of the key terms related to reforms in the teaching and learning of science. It is often used by policy-makers, curriculum developers, science education researchers and science teachers. In recent years, many policy documents based on international surveys have claimed that science education is often seen (especially at the secondary school level) as being irrelevant for and by the learners. The literature suggests that making science learning relevant both to the learner personally and to the society in which he or she lives should be one of the key goals of science education. However, what relevant' means is usually inadequately conceptualised. This review of the literature clearly reveals that the term relevance is used with widely variant meanings. From our analysis of the literature, we will suggest an advanced organisational scheme for the term relevance' and provide helpful suggestions for its use in the field of the science curriculum.
(2013) Research in Science Education. 43, 1, p. 317-345 Abstract
One of the goals of science education is to provide students with the ability to construct arguments-reasoning and thinking critically in a scientific context. Over the years, many studies have been conducted on constructing arguments in science teaching, but only few of them have dealt with studying argumentation in the laboratory. Our research focuses on the process in which students construct arguments in the chemistry laboratory while conducting various types of experiments. It was found that inquiry experiments have the potential to serve as an effective platform for formulating arguments, owing to the features of this learning environment. The discourse during inquiry-type experiments was found to be rich in arguments, whereas that during confirmatory-type experiments was found to be sparse in arguments. The arguments, which were developed during the discourse of an open inquiry experiment, focus on the hypothesis-building stage, analysis of the results, and drawing appropriate conclusions.
(2013) Chemistry Education and Sustainability in the Global Age. Chou C-C, Tuan H-L, Wu H-K, Lin J-W & Chiu M-H(eds.). Dordrecht: . p. 85-96 Abstract
Traditionally, most teachers, both during their pre-service training as well as during their in-service experience, are exposed to only the conceptual structure and processes of chemistry. However, teaching chemistry most effectively necessitates both content knowledge as well as pedagogical content knowledge. Regarding the content knowledge, it is suggested that in the teaching and learning of chemistry, students should be exposed to recent investigations, namely the “frontiers of chemistry,” as well as inquiry-based problems. This approach to high school chemistry places great demands on chemistry teachers. In order to cope with the problems mentioned above, a special program for enhancing chemistry teachers’ content knowledge as well as their pedagogical knowledge was launched at the Weizmann Institute of Science. The program, which was designed for chemistry teachers, consists of three steps, in which the teachers attend (1) course lectures together with the regular MSc students, (2) a follow-up tutoring lesson which was prepared especially for teachers by one of the staff scientists and elaborates on the course lecture, and (3) a workshop coordinated by a researcher from the science teaching group, in order to apply the scientific knowledge to the educational field.
Assessment of the laboratory learning environment in an inquiry-oriented chemistry laboratory in Arab and Jewish high schools in Israel(2012) Learning Environments Research. 15, 2, p. 141-169 Abstract
An inquiry-oriented laboratory in chemistry was integrated into the chemistry curriculum in Jewish high schools in Israel, and after a short period was also implemented in Arab sector. In this study, we investigated the effect of culture on the perceptions of laboratory classroom learning environments by comparing the perceptions of Arab and Jewish high school students who learned the inquiry-oriented chemistry laboratory. The learning environment is influenced by student-teacher relationship and we thought that this relation is an important issue in the inquiry laboratory and is different between the Arab and Jewish populations. However, until recently, the Arab teachers have remained in the centre of the learning process and their students perceived them as the main source of knowledge and information. In this study, we used both quantitative and qualitative methods to determine whether the laboratory learning environment was different in Arab and Jewish classes that learned in the inquiry-oriented laboratory in chemistry. A statistical comparison of Arab and Jewish inquiry groups revealed significant differences in their actual and preferred perceptions. From the qualitative part of the study, we found that the teachers and students from the Arab and Jewish sectors were statistically similar in the categories that we measured during the inquiry phase, but they were statistically different during the pre-inquiry phase of the laboratory. From the interviews with the teachers and the students, we found that there were differences in the student-teacher relationship between the two sectors.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF ACTION RESEARCH TO PROMOTE CHEMISTRY TEACHERS' PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT-A JOINED THEORETICAL REFLECTION ON TWO CASES FROM ISRAEL AND GERMANY(2012) International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education. 10, 3, p. 581-610 Abstract
Action research is defined as using research activities to develop concrete societal practices. Action research understands the change of practice as being already a central aim of the research process itself, and it also seeks to contribute to the professional development of all participants in the particular field of study. Even though (or maybe even because) action research has a long history in the literature, there is a wide variety of interpretations of it. These range all the way from research supportive, via interactive, to emancipatory approaches. There is also a broad range of objectives covering both improving professional environments and generating results of general interest. This paper explores the spectrum of justifications given for action research with a specific focus on science education. Two completely different examples of action research selected from Israel and Germany help illustrate the diversity of the topic. The Israeli case focuses primarily on the professional development of a group of teachers; the German example hones in on the development of suitable curricula and lesson plans for wide dissemination. Comparison of these two projects is embedded in a theoretical framework which categorizes the different action research modes and contemplates teachers' professional development. The aim of this paper is to reflect upon the common potential inherent in differing forms of action research on science education, including the aspect of professional development among teachers.
Laboratory Activities in Israel(2012) Eurasia Journal Of Mathematics Science And Technology Education. 8, 1, p. 49-57 Abstract
Laboratory activities have long had a distinctive and central role in the science curriculum, and science educators have suggested that many benefits accrue from engaging students in science laboratory activities. Many research studies have been conducted to investigate the educational effectiveness of laboratory work in science education in facilitating the attainment of the cognitive, affective, and practical goals. In Israel, on 2000, the chemical education committee, based on a needs assessment survey, recommended that the new syllabus include a whole unit of inquiry-based laboratory as part of the learning sequence. The reform highlighted the laboratory unit as the central component in the new curriculum. In this paper we will describe the chemistry laboratory curriculum in Israel, its development, implementation and assessment strategies.
(2012) Chemistry Education Research and Practice. 13, 3, p. 248-267 Abstract
Chemical bonding knowledge is fundamental and essential to the understanding of almost every topic in chemistry, but it is very difficult to learn. While many studies have characterized some of the central elements of knowledge of this topic, these elements of knowledge have not been systematically organized. We describe the development and testing of a matrix that represents: (A) a systematic organization of the conceptual knowledge on chemical bonding required at high school level and (B) a tool for representing students' conceptual knowledge of this topic. The matrix contains three strands: the structure of matter at the nanoscopic level, electrostatic interactions between charged entities, and energy aspects related to bonding. In each strand there are hierarchically ordered cells that contain fine grain elements of knowledge. Using various instruments, students' conceptual knowledge of chemical bonding was assessed and mapped onto the matrix, generating graphical representations of their knowledge. New computational and online technologies enable automatic data collection and its analysis. Therefore, we believe that this organization and representation of small grain size elements of knowledge can be a useful for the development of a detailed diagnostic tool of knowledge of chemical bonding.
(2012) Chemistry Education Research and Practice. 13, 2, p. 80-92 Abstract
Discussions held in the chemical education community have generated a variety of reports and recommendations for reforming the chemistry curriculum. The recommendations refer to teaching chemistry in the context of real-world issues. This has been suggested as a way to enhance students' motivation. It is suggested that real-world problems emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of chemistry and the relevance of chemistry to the students' lives. An attempt was made to incorporate these recommendations into the teaching of chemistry by teaching analytical chemistry together with environmental chemistry. A unit incorporating analytical chemistry in an environmental context was developed, in which the students learn concepts of a specific environmental issue. The unit "I Have Chemistry with the Environment", consisting of two modules, was developed on the topics of drinking-water quality, and the greenhouse effect. The research questions focus on the change in the attitudes and perceptions of the students toward chemistry and environmental issues, after learning the environmental unit. The results indicate that the students underwent a significant change in their awareness of environmental issues. All the students mentioned that the unit influenced their everyday-life perceptions of environmental issues and that their awareness of environmental issues increased. Another important finding was that more students found that learning the "I Have Chemistry with the Environment" unit encouraged them to learn chemistry. They indicated that they especially appreciated the feeling that they could discover things by themselves. Clearly, the students found that learning the unit was relevant to chemistry learning as well as to their personal lives. Researchers believe that such a program may promote education for sustainable development.
EFFECT OF CULTURE ON HIGH-SCHOOL STUDENTS' QUESTION-ASKING ABILITY RESULTING FROM AN INQUIRY-ORIENTED CHEMISTRY LABORATORY(2011) International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education. 9, 6, p. 1305-1331 Abstract
In order to cope with complex issues in the science-technology-environment-society context, one must develop students' high-order learning skills, such as question-asking ability (QAA), critical thinking, evaluative thinking, decision-making, and problem-solving capabilities within science education. In this study, we are concerned with evaluating the effect of student-teacher interaction-which is regulated by culture and traditions-on the QAA in science classroom in general and, specifically in our case, in chemistry laboratory classroom. We take Arab and Jewish sectors that are according to the literature different in their culture and tradition, as a model for our investigation. Specially developed and validated tools, including a novel practical test and an adapted article followed by a questionnaire for evaluating QAA, were administered to the research student population, and the responses were analyzed quantitatively. Observations were conducted in order to better understand the quantitative results that we got. Our findings indicate that there was a difference in the QAA between the 2 sectors. According to our findings, we assume that cultures, tradition, norms, social structure, modes of living, and related factors play a significant role as far as the development of students' QAA and apparently any intended attempt targeting the QAA paradigm shift must take into consideration the multicultural context within which it is to be implemented.
(2011) Celebrating the 100th Anniversary of Madame Marie Sklodowska Curie’s Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Treagust D. F., Chiu M. -. & Gilmer P. J.(eds.). Rotterdam: . p. 119-139 Abstract
The Scientific Revolution established science as a source for the growth of knowledge. During the 19th century, the practice of science became professionalized and institutionalized in ways that continued through the 20th century. As scientific knowledge rapidly increased in society, it was incorporated into many aspects of the characteristics and functions of nations and states. A chain of advances in knowledge, which have always complemented each other, has marked the history of science. Technological innovations bring about new discoveries, which lead to other innovations, which inspire new possibilities and innovative approaches to long-standing scientific issues and open questions
(2010) Studies in Science Education. 46, 2, p. 179-207 Abstract
Chemical bonding is one of the key and basic concepts in chemistry. The learning of many of the concepts taught in chemistry, in both secondary schools as well as in the colleges, is dependent upon understanding fundamental ideas related to chemical bonding. Nevertheless, the concept is perceived by teachers, as well as by learners, as difficult, with teaching commonly leading to students developing misconceptions. Many of these misconceptions result from over-simplified models used in text books, by the use of traditional pedagogy that presents a rather limited and sometimes incorrect picture of the issues related to chemical bonding and by assessments of students' achievement that influence the way the topic is taught. In addition, there are discrepancies between scientists regarding key definitions in the topic and the most appropriate models to teach it. In particular, teaching models that are intended to have transitional epistemological value in introducing abstract ideas are often instead understood by students as accounts of ontological reality. In this review paper we provide science educators, curricula developers and pre-service and in-service professional development providers an up-to-date picture regarding research and developments in teaching about chemical bonding. We review the external and internal variables that might lead to misconceptions and the problematic issue of using limited teaching/learning models. Finally, we review the approaches to teaching the concept that might overcome some of these misconceptions.
Providing chemistry teachers with opportunities to enhance their knowledge in contemporary scientific areas: a three-stage model(2010) Chemistry Education Research and Practice. 11, 4, p. 241-252 Abstract
In order to help teachers to bring their students into contact with the frontiers of chemistry, a special program for enhancing chemistry teachers' content knowledge as well as their pedagogical knowledge was launched at the Weizmann Institute of Science. The program, which was specifically designed for the chemistry teachers, consists of three stages, in which the teachers attended (1) the course lectures, together with the regular M.Sc. students, (2) a 'Follow-up' tutoring lesson, which was prepared especially for them by one of the staff scientists and was aimed at elaborating on the course lecture, and (3) a workshop coordinated by a researcher from the science teaching group, in order to apply the scientific knowledge to the educational field. The model reduced the teachers' anxieties resulting from taking academic scientific courses; they gained modern and advanced scientific content knowledge, and succeeded in applying it in their teaching.
(2008) Journal of Chemical Education. 85, 12, p. 1680-1685 Abstract
Traditional curriculum for teaching bonding often fosters the use of over-simplifications and over-generalizations. Therefore, there is a need for a presentation that is consistent with current scientific knowledge and that provides the student with the proper intellectual infrastructure for further studies. In this article, we present a general framework for bonding that can be presented at different levels of sophistication depending on the student's level and needs. This is achieved without sacrificing the benefits of traditional qualification of different bond types as this qualification is presented along a continuum scale of chemical bonding. The pedagogical strategy for teaching this model is a "bottom-up" one, starting with basic principles and ending with specific properties. It is our hope that its use could remove learning impediments and enhance students understanding of the nature of chemical bonds.
Increasing Science Teachers' Ownership through the Adaptation of the PARSEL Modules: A "Bottom-up" Approach(2008) Science Education International. 19, 3, p. 285-301 Abstract
The study describes the process of adopting new curriculum materials, which had been developed in the PARSEL project in several European countries, into the local educational science classroom of another country. The goal of the PARSEL project was to raise the popularity and relevance of science teaching by enhancing students scientific and technological literacy and by identifying suitable teaching/learning materials, based on relevant context-based educational approaches. All PARSEL materials are organized in a website and are freely accessible by science teachers around the world. In order to increase the teachers ownership towards the new materials, a "bottom-up" approach that included a teacher workshop for modifying the PARSEL modules for the needs of teachers was implemented. The teachers used the modified modules in their classes and reflect upon the whole process, after it was completed. Data have been collected using various research tools, such as, teachers questionnaires, teachers interviews and teachers focus group interviews. The results indicate that the "bottom-up" process increased teacher ownership towards the PARSEL modules and helped the teachers to align their teaching with the philosophy and the teaching style of the PARSEL project. It was also indicated that the students found the modules to be popular and interesting. (Contains 1 figure and 3 footnotes.)
Analyzing inquiry questions of high-school students in a gas chromatography open-ended laboratory experiment(2008) Chemistry Education Research and Practice. 9, 3, p. 250-258 Abstract
This paper describes the implementation of an open-ended inquiry experiment for high-school students, based on gas chromatography (GC). The research focuses on identifying the level of questions that students ask during the GC open inquiry laboratory, and it examines whether implementing the advanced inquiry laboratory opens up new directions for students' questions. We found correlations between students' achievements and the level of their inquiry questions, and showed that the GC open-ended inquiry laboratory engaged students with different abilities and helped them deepen their understanding in various ways, according to their different levels.
Evidence for teachers' change while participating in a continuous professional development programme and implementing the inquiry approach in the chemistry laboratory(2008) International Journal of Science Education. 30, 5, p. 593-617 Abstract
In this study our goal was to better understand the development of chemistry teachers who are involved in a continuous professional development (CPD) programme, focusing on using the inquiry approach in the chemistry classroom-laboratory, followed by protocols assembled in a portfolio that can be used to demonstrate evidence-based practice in chemistry teaching in the inquiry laboratory. Fourteen experienced chemistry teachers participated in a workshop, coordinated by three CPD providers from the Department of Science Teaching, at the Weizmann Institute of Science. The meetings, lasting about three hours, were conducted once a month. Of the fourteen teachers, some were videotaped while conducting inquiry-type experiments in their classes, and were interviewed immediately afterwards. Based on the findings, we conclude that the CPD programme contributed to the professional development of the teachers. The teachers became more reflective and more aware of their practice. In addition, we observed a change in their pedagogical knowledge and content knowledge regarding the inquiry teaching. Moreover, their anxiety concerning the implementation of the programme was reduced significantly throughout the year.
Developing Epistemologically Empowered Teachers: Examining the Role of Philosophy of Chemistry in Teacher Education(2007) Science & Education. 16, 9-10, p. 975-989 Abstract
History and philosophy of science have been widely promoted in science teacher education for several decades. However the application of themes from philosophy of science in science teacher education has been rather broad and not particular relative to the domain-specific features of the science in question. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the new field of philosophy of chemistry can contribute to science teacher education. Since the beginning of the 1990s, philosophy of chemistry has emerged as a relatively new branch of philosophy of science examining the distinctive nature of chemical knowledge. Some implications of this domain in chemical education have been investigated although the research territory in this area remains underdeveloped. The paper is intended to contribute to this area of research by focusing on a particular theme, the microscopic/macroscopic relationship (or the so-called "supervenience" problem) in the context of models and modelling. Literature review of students' and teachers' understanding of models and modelling in chemistry highlights the importance of incorporating the epistemological aspects of related chemical concepts. The implications for teacher education are discussed
Developing a new teaching approach for the chemical bonding concept aligned with current scientific and pedagogical knowledge(2007) Science Education. 91, 4, p. 579-603 Abstract
The traditional pedagogical approach for teaching chemical bonding is often overly simplistic and not aligned with the Most up-to-date scientific models. As a result, high-school students around the world lack fundamental understanding of chemical bonding. In order to improve students' understanding of this concept, it was essential to propose a systemic treatment, namely, revising the scientific content, the pedagogical approach, and the assessment methods regarding this concept. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to build a conceptual framework that provides an advanced scientific and pedagogical foundation regarding the chemical bonding concept-one that will guide chemistry curriculum developers as well. A conceptual framework for a new teaching approach was constructed with lead-chemistry teachers, science (chemistry) educators, and research chemists. We suggest that chemical bonding should be taught based on elemental principles and by using the idea of a continuum of bond strengths. Our process includes the formulation of learning goals aligned with current scientific knowledge. Moreover, we suggest that constructing assessment tasks on carefully specified learning goals, which are described in terms of learning performances, may enable educators to foster and examine much deeper levels of students' understanding. (C) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Involving Science Teachers in the Development and Implementation of Assessment Tools for "Science for All"(2007) Journal of Science Teacher Education. 18, 4, p. 497-524 Abstract
We describe a workshop in which 10 teachers from 10 schools, located in central Israel, participated in the development of alternative assessment tools in the context of implementing a new science curriculum for senior high-school students, namely "Science for All" (an STS type curriculum). In order to assist a group of teachers (who began teaching the “Science for All” program) in both teaching and assessment strategies, it was decided that the Department of Science Teaching at the Weizmann Institute of Science would sponsor a workshop for them. An evaluation study was conducted during the workshop and at its completion. The main goal of the study was to evaluate the outcomes of the workshop and to determine whether its objectives were attained. The research tools consisted of (a) an attitude questionnaire administered to participating teachers, (b) structured interviews with the teachers, (c) structured interviews with students, and (d) an attitude questionnaire administered to the students. Based on the results of the questionnaires and the interviews, it seems that all the teachers who participated in the workshop gained self-confidence in using the teaching strategies and assessment methods of this new interdisciplinary curriculum. The interviews with students revealed that their active involvement in their own assessment improved their sense of responsibility for their achievements. The variety of assignments enabled them to be at their best with certain assignments and to succeed less with others. In conclusion, we found that running a new interdisciplinary curriculum requires a professional development program that will stimulate teachers’ creativity and diversify the instructional strategies that they use in the classroom. Such skills should improve their ability to understand the goals, strategies, and rationale of the curriculum, as well as their students’ learning difficulties.
The laboratory in science education: the state of the art(2007) Chemistry Education Research and Practice. 8, 2, p. 105-107 Abstract
For more than a century, laboratory experiences have been purported to promote central science education goals including the enhancement of students' understanding of concepts in science and its applications; scientific practical skills and problem solving abilities; scientific 'habits of mind'; understanding of how science and scientists work; interest and motivation. Now at the beginning of the 21(st) century it looks as if the issue regarding learning in and from the science laboratory and the laboratory in the context of teaching and learning chemistry is still relevant regarding research issues as well as developmental and implementation issues. This special CERP issue is an attempt to provide up-to-date reports from several countries around the world.
Developing students' ability to ask more and better questions resulting from inquiry-type chemistry laboratories(2005) Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 42, 7, p. 791-806 Abstract
This study focuses on the ability of high-school chemistry students, who learn chemistry through the inquiry approach, to ask meaningful and scientifically sound questions. We investigated (a) the ability of students to ask questions related to their observations and findings in an inquiry-type experiment (a practical test) and (b) the ability of students to ask questions after critically reading a scientific article. The student population consisted of two groups: an inquiry-laboratory group (experimental group) and a traditional laboratory-type group (control group). The three common features investigated were (a) the number of questions that were asked by each of the students, (b) the cognitive level of the questions, and (c) the nature of the questions that were chosen by the students, for the purpose of further investigation. Importantly, it was found that students in the inquiry group who had experience in asking questions in the chemistry laboratory outperformed the control grouping in their ability to ask more and better questions. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
(2005) International Journal of Science Education. 27, 7, p. 855-879 Abstract
Design-based science (DBS) is a science pedagogy in which new scientific knowledge and problem-solving skills are constructed in the context of designing artifacts. This paper examines whether the enactment of a DBS unit supported students' efforts to construct and transfer new science knowledge and 'designerly' problem-solving skills to the solution of a new real-world design problem in a real-world setting. One hundred and forty-nine students participated in the enactment of a DBS unit. Their understanding of the curricular content was assessed by identical pre-instructional and post-instructional written tests. They were then given a new design problem as a transfer task. There was a statistically significant increase on scores from pre-test to post-test with an effect size of 1.8. There was a stronger correlation between the scores of the transfer task and those of the post-test than with those of the pre-test; we use this finding to suggest that the knowledge that was constructed during the unit enactment supported the solution of the transfer task. This has implications for the development of science curricula that aim to lead to the construction of knowledge and skills that may be useful in extra-classroom settings. Whether participation in consecutive enactments of different DBS units increases transfer remains to be investigated in more depth.
(2005) Research And The Quality Of Science Education. p. 141-155 Abstract
Ten high-school chemistry teachers and two staff members from the Science Teaching Department of the Weizmann Institute of Science who served as coordinators participated in a one-year professional development program aimed at enhancing the teaching and learning of chemistry using Action Research methodology. In Action Research, teachers research their own practice of teaching. The program involved monthly meetings throughout the year at the Science Teaching Department. Here we present two case studies which will serve as examples of the program. In the first study, teachers investigated their students' misconceptions about the electrical conductivity of metals and ionic materials. The second study focused on the behavior of non-science-oriented students and their attitudes toward chemistry studies. The program included an evaluation of the process that teachers underwent while doing their classroom research; the evaluation was done by the workshop coordinators. Based on the findings of these two studies, we may conclude that involving teachers in an intensive workshop dealing with various aspects of teaching and with investigating their own work, provides teachers with tools for systematically diagnosing students' learning difficulties and the ability to change their instruction accordingly. Moreover, the workshop experience supported an environment of collegiality and enabled teachers to collaborate with professional researchers and other teachers.
How do I design a cellular phone that is safer to use?: development and implementation of an innovative curriculum - an international perspective(2005) Making it Relevant: Context-based Learning of Science. p. 215-241 Abstract
(2004) Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 41, 10, p. 1081-1110 Abstract
Design-Based Science (DBS) is a pedagogy in which the goal of designing an artifact contextualizes all curricular activities. Design is viewed as a vehicle through which scientific knowledge and real-world problem-solving skills can be constructed. Following Anderson and Hogan's (1999) call to document the design of new science pedagogics, this goal of this article is twofold: (a) to describe DBS, and (b) to evaluate whether significant science knowledge was constructed during consecutive enactments of three DBS units. In this study, 92 students participated in the consecutive enactments of three different DBS units. The development of their scientific knowledge was assessed through posters and models constructed during the curricular enactments and by identical pre- and post-instruction written tests. The post-tests Showed considerable gains compared with the pretests, while the models and posters show application of this newly constructed knowledge in solving a design problem. These positive results support efforts being made to restructure school science around inquiry-based curricula in general and design-based curricula in particular.
(2004) Chemistry Education Research and Practice. 5, 3, p. 301- 325 Abstract
Many researches have been conducted in order to examine students’ misconceptions in chemistry. The present study focuses on students' difficulties regarding the concepts chemical structure and bonding, which are essential for understanding many concepts and topics in chemistry. Research conducted around the world has clearly shown that the concepts associated with chemicalstructure and bonding, such as molecules, ions, hydrogen bonds, and giant lattices are abstract and are highly based on the sub-microscopic nature of chemistry. In Israel, the central developed Matriculation Examination in chemistry is one of the main sources for information on misconceptionsof students. The analyses of the Matriculation Examinations in chemistry, over a period of more than12 years, revealed each year that students have a fundamental misunderstanding and difficultiesregarding these concepts. No doubt, the teaching and learning of these concepts is a serious andcontinuous problem. In this study we present several factors leading to these misconceptions. Morespecifically, we focus on how the structure and content of the National Matriculation Examinationsconducted in Israel influence chemistry teaching and learning. We think that this type of assessmentcan be a major factor in the development of students’ learning difficulties and alternative conceptions.
שיטות הוראה ודרכי הערכה חלופיות במסגרת תכנית מוט"ב(1999) הלכה למעשה. 14, Abstract
המאמר מתמקד בתיאור הסדנה שבה התנסו המורים בשיטות הוראה ובדרכיהערכה חלופיות בהקשר של תכנית לימודים חדשה לתלמידי בתי הספרהתיכוניים: "מדע וטכנולוגיה בחברה".הבעיות העלולות להתעורר בעת יישום התכנית הן:האופי הבין-תחומי של הנושא ואי-הבקיאות של המורים בתחומי תוכןשלא הוכשרו בהם. (המורים שהחלו ללמד את תכנית מוט"ב הוכשרוללמד מקצועות ייחודיים במדעים: כימיה, ביולוגיה או פיזיקה.)לא תמיד המורים מכירים את אסטרטגיות ההוראה הנדרשות.כדי לסייע לקבוצת מורים משני בתי ספר (שהחלו ללמד את תכנית מוט"בבשנת 1997) בשיטות הוראה והערכה גם יחד, הוחלט לפתוח סדנה למוריםאלה במחלקה להוראת המדעים במכון וייצמן למדע.מאפייני הסדנה מתחלקים לשניים:פעילויות סדנה;.1פעילויות שטח (כיתה)..2שיטות הוראה והערכה שונות שפותחו בסדנה ישמשו דוגמה. שיטות העבודהשננקטו בסדנה זו יכולות לשמש גם בעבודה עם מורים במסגרות אחרות.
הפעלת תכנית לימודים בכימיה בגליל:: מודל להסבת מורים מהוראת מקצוע אחד להוראת מקצוע אחר(1995) הלכה למעשה. 10, p. 149-170 Abstract
היחידה לכימיה במחלקה להוראת המדעים במכון וייצמן עוסקת בפיתוחתכניות לימודים, ביישומן ובהערכתן. עבודת היחידה מבוססת על "יישוםדינמי" והערכה, כלומר - בעת יישום תכנית לימודים בכימיה, נוצר לעתיםצורך להפעיל פרויקט שיסייע למורים להתאים את עצמם לתכנית הלימודיםהחדשה. דוגמה להשפעה כזו היא הפרויקט "הפעלת תכנית לימודים בכימיהבגליל העליון", שהתקיים בצפון המדינה בין השנים 1980 ו1994-.סקר שנעשה בישראל במהלך 1988/89 הראה שאין כמעט לימודי כימיהבבתי הספר התיכוניים בצפון הארץ. תוצאות הסקר היו מאכזבות מאוד,משום שחשוב מאוד לעורר את התעניינותם של תלמידי תיכון בלימודיםנוספים בכימיה ולכוון אותם לתעשייה הכימית בישראל.הצורך להכשיר מורים שיוכלו ללמד כימיה בסיסית ומתקדמת בבתי ספרתיכוניים היה ברור. אוכלוסיית היעד הייתה המורים לביולוגיה ולחקלאותבבתי הספר התיכוניים. החוקרים הניחו שמורים אלה, שברשותם ידע פדגוגיעל המקצועות שהם מלמדים, יוכלו להפוך למורים משביעי רצון לכימיהבעזרת קורס אינטנסיבי בחומר הלימוד בכימיה ובשיטות ההוראה שלהמקצוע.היעד העיקרי של הקורס היה לאפשר למשתתפים להכיר את הנושאים האלה:מושגים בכימיה ברמה הבסיסית הנדרשת בתיכון;.1שיטות הוראה בכימיה..2ברוח גישה זו נפתח באוקטובר 1989 קורס כזה שנמשך חמש שנים. הקורסהיה מיועד רק למורי ביולוגיה מנוסים ותוכנן בחמישה שלבים במהלך חמששנים. עם סיום הקורס הופצו שאלונים וקוימו ראיונות עם המשתתפים. על פיהתוצאות אפשר לקבוע שהקורס מילא את ציפיותיהם. המורים גם אמרושהקורס תרם לידע הכללי, להעשרה ולמתודולוגיות הוראה.מוצע שקורס זה ישמש דגם להכשרה תוך כדי הוראה במקצועות שונים.
(1993) Journal of Chemical Education. 70, 1, p. 31-34 Abstract
After discovering unsatisfactory student understanding of the difference between heat and temperature, the authors developed a new way of introducing thermodynamics that yielded greater successes in student understanding of this distinction.