Publications
2024

(2024) Physical review letters. 132, 9, 096101. Abstract
Kagome metals AV3Sb5 (A=K, Rb, or Cs) exhibit intriguing charge density wave (CDW) instabilities, which interplay with superconductivity and band topology. However, despite firm observations, the atomistic origins of the CDW phases, as well as hidden instabilities, remain elusive. Here, we adopt our newly developed symmetryadapted cluster expansion method to construct a firstprinciplesbased effective Hamiltonian of CsV3Sb5, which not only reproduces the established inverse star of David (ISD) phase, but also predict a series of D3hn states under mild tensile strains. With such atomistic Hamiltonians, the microscopic origins of different CDW states are revealed as the competition of the secondnearest neighbor VV pairs versus the firstnearest neighbor VV and VSb couplings. Interestingly, the effective Hamiltonians also reveal the existence of ionic DzyaloshinskiiMoriya interaction in the highsymmetry phase of CsV3Sb5 and drives the formation of noncollinear CDW patterns. Our work thus not only deepens the understanding of the CDW formation in AV3Sb5, but also demonstrates that the effective Hamiltonian is a suitable approach for investigating CDW mechanisms, which can be extended to various CDW systems.

(2024) Nature Communications. 15, 1918. Abstract[All authors]
The combination of a geometrically frustrated lattice, and similar energy scales between degrees of freedom endows twodimensional Kagome metals with a rich array of quantum phases and renders them ideal for studying strong electron correlations and band topology. The Kagome metal, FeGe is a noted example of this, exhibiting Atype collinear antiferromagnetic (AFM) order at T_{N} ≈ 400 K, then establishes a charge density wave (CDW) phase coupled with AFM ordered moment below T_{CDW} ≈ 110 K, and finally forms a caxis double cone AFM structure around T_{Canting} ≈ 60 K. Here we use neutron scattering to demonstrate the presence of gapless incommensurate spin excitations associated with the double cone AFM structure of FeGe at temperatures well above T_{Canting} and T_{CDW} that merge into gapped commensurate spin waves from the Atype AFM order. Commensurate spin waves follow the Bose factor and fit the Heisenberg Hamiltonian, while the incommensurate spin excitations, emerging below T_{N} where AFM order is commensurate, start to deviate from the Bose factor around T_{CDW}, and peaks at T_{Canting}. This is consistent with a critical scattering of a second order magnetic phase transition with decreasing temperature. By comparing these results with density functional theory calculations, we conclude that the incommensurate magnetic structure arises from the nested Fermi surfaces of itinerant electrons and the formation of a spin density wave order.

(2024) Nature Communications. 15, 1, 2301. Abstract[All authors]
Atomically precise defect engineering is essential to manipulate the properties of emerging topological quantum materials for practical quantum applications. However, this remains challenging due to the obstacles in modifying the typically complex crystal lattice with atomic precision. Here, we report the atomically precise engineering of the vacancylocalized spin–orbit polarons in a kagome magnetic Weyl semimetal Co3Sn2S2, using scanning tunneling microscope. We achieve the stepbystep repair of the selected vacancies, leading to the formation of artificial sulfur vacancies with elaborate geometry. We find that that the bound states localized around these vacancies undergo a symmetry dependent energy shift towards Fermi level with increasing vacancy size. As the vacancy size increases, the localized magnetic moments of spin–orbit polarons become tunable and eventually become itinerantly negative due to spin–orbit coupling in the kagome flat band. These findings provide a platform for engineering atomic quantum states in topological quantum materials at the atomic scale.

(2024) Nature. 626, 7997, p. 6671 Abstract[All authors]
Ever since its discovery^{ 1}, the notion of the Berry phase has permeated all branches of physics and plays an important part in a variety of quantum phenomena^{ 2}. However, so far all its realizations have been based on a continuous evolution of the quantum state, following a cyclic path. Here we introduce and demonstrate a conceptually new manifestation of the Berry phase in lightdriven crystals, in which the electronic wavefunction accumulates a geometric phase during a discrete evolution between different bands, while preserving the coherence of the process. We experimentally reveal this phase by using a strong laser field to engineer an internal interferometer, induced during less than one cycle of the driving field, which maps the phase onto the emission of higherorder harmonics. Our work provides an opportunity for the study of geometric phases, leading to a variety of observations in lightdriven topological phenomena and attosecond solidstate physics.

(2024) Nature Communications. 15, 1357. Abstract
Controlling and understanding electron correlations in quantum matter is one of the most challenging tasks in materials engineering. In the past years a plethora of new puzzling correlated states have been found by carefully stacking and twisting twodimensional van der Waals materials of different kind. Unique to these stacked structures is the emergence of correlated phases not foreseeable from the single layers alone. In Tadichalcogenide heterostructures made of a good metallic “1H” and a Mott insulating “1T”layer, recent reports have evidenced a crossbreed itinerant and localized nature of the electronic excitations, similar to what is typically found in heavy fermion systems. Here, we put forward a new interpretation based on firstprinciples calculations which indicates a sizeable charge transfer of electrons (0.40.6 e) from 1T to 1H layers at an elevated interlayer distance. We accurately quantify the strength of the interlayer hybridization which allows us to unambiguously determine that the system is much closer to a doped Mott insulator than to a heavy fermion scenario. Tabased heterolayers provide therefore a new ground for quantummaterials engineering in the regime of heavily doped Mott insulators hybridized with metallic states at a van der Waals distance.

(2024) Physical Review Materials. 8, 2, 024003. Abstract[All authors]
We report quantum oscillation measurements on the kagome compounds ATi3Bi5 (A=Rb, Cs) in magnetic fields up to 41.5 T and temperatures down to 350 mK. In addition to the frequencies observed in previous studies, we have observed multiple unreported frequencies above 2000 T in CsTi3Bi5 using a tunnel diode oscillator technique. We compare these results against density functional theory calculations and find good agreement with the calculations in the number of peaks observed, frequency, and the dimensionality of the Fermi surface. For RbTi3Bi5 we have obtained a different quantum oscillation spectrum, although calculated quantum oscillation frequencies for the Rb compound are remarkably similar to the Cs compound, calling for further studies.

(2024) Science. 383, 6678, p. 4248 Abstract[All authors]
Quantum oscillations originating from the quantization of electron cyclotron orbits provide sensitive diagnostics of electron bands and interactions. We report on nanoscale imaging of the thermodynamic magnetization oscillations caused by the de Haasvan Alphen effect in moiré graphene. Scanning by means of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID)ontip in Bernal bilayer graphene crystal axisaligned to hexagonal boron nitride reveals large magnetization oscillations with amplitudes reaching 500 Bohr magneton per electron in weak magnetic fields, unexpectedly low frequencies, and high sensitivity to superlattice filling fraction. The oscillations allow us to reconstruct the complex band structure, revealing narrow moiré bands with multiple overlapping Fermi surfaces separated by unusually small momentum gaps. We identified sets of oscillations that violate the textbook Onsager Fermi surface sum rule, signaling formation of broadband particlehole superposition states induced by coherent magnetic breakdown.

(2024) npj Quantum Materials. 9, 14. Abstract[All authors]
Charge density waves (CDWs) in kagome metals have been tied to many exotic phenomena. Here, using spectroscopicimaging scanning tunneling microscopy and angleresolved photoemission spectroscopy, we study the charge order in kagome metal ScV_{6}Sn_{6}. The similarity of electronic band structures of ScV_{6}Sn_{6} and TbV_{6}Sn_{6} (where charge ordering is absent) suggests that charge ordering in ScV_{6}Sn_{6} is unlikely to be primarily driven by Fermi surface nesting of the Van Hove singularities. In contrast to the CDW state of cousin kagome metals, we find no evidence supporting rotation symmetry breaking. Differential conductance dI/dV spectra show a partial gap Δ ^{1}_{CO} ≈ 20 meV at the Fermi level. Interestingly, dI/dV maps reveal that charge modulations exhibit an abrupt phase shift as a function of energy at energy much higher than Δ ^{1}_{CO}, which we attribute to another spectral gap. Our experiments reveal a distinctive nature of the charge order in ScV_{6}Sn_{6} with fundamental differences compared to other kagome metals.

(2024) Physical Review B. 109, 3, 035142. Abstract
The ability to selectively excite light with fixed handedness is crucial for circularly polarized light emission. It is commonly believed that the luminescent material chirality determines the emitted light handedness, regardless of the light emitting direction. In this paper, we propose an anomalous circular polarized light emission (ACPLE) whose handedness actually relies on the emission direction and current direction in electroluminescence. In a solid semiconductor, the ACPLE originates in the band structure topology characterized by the optical Berry curvature dipole. ACPLE exists in inversionsymmetry breaking materials including chiral materials. We exemplify the ACPLE by estimating the high circular polarization ratio in monolayer WS2. In addition, the ACPLE can be further generalized to magnetic semiconductors in which the optical Berry curvature plays a leading role instead. Our finding reveals intriguing consequences of band topology in light emission and promises optoelectric applications.

(2024) Physical review letters. 132, 2, 026301. Abstract
The quantum geometry has significant consequences in determining transport and optical properties in quantum materials. Here, we use a semiclassical formalism coupled with perturbative corrections unifying the nonlinear anomalous Hall effect and nonreciprocal magnetoresistance (longitudinal resistance) from the quantum geometry. In the dc limit, both transverse and longitudinal nonlinear conductivities include a term due to the normalized quantum metric dipole. The quantum metric contribution is intrinsic and does not scale with the quasiparticle lifetime. We demonstrate the coexistence of a nonlinear anomalous Hall effect and nonreciprocal magnetoresistance in films of the doped antiferromagnetic topological insulator MnBi2Te4. Our work indicates that both longitudinal and transverse nonlinear transport provide a sensitive probe of the quantum geometry in solids.

(2024) Science China Materials. 67, 3, p. 906913 Abstract
Bi_{2}SeO_{5} has garnered considerable attention as a van der Waals (vdW) layered dielectric material featuring excellent electrical insulation properties. However, the related theoretical understanding of the dielectric properties of atomically thin films is still lacking. Here, we conducted the firstprinciples calculations to determine the dielectric performance of Bi_{2}SeO_{5}, showing a high average dielectric constant (ε) of >20 ranging from bulk to bilayer and monolayer. Besides, the conduction and valance band offsets between the monolayer Bi_{2}SeO_{5} and bilayer Bi_{2}O_{2}Se were calculated to be greater than 1 eV, suggesting that monolayer Bi_{2}SeO_{5} works well as the dielectric for atomically thin Bi_{2}O_{2}Se. Unlike hBN or other twodimensional (2D) vdW insulators, ε of Bi_{2}SeO_{5} is dominated by its ionic component and remains nearly constant as the thickness decreases, demonstrating an ultralow equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of 0.3 nm for its monolayer form. Moreover, the high ε of monolayer Bi_{2}SeO_{5} survives under tensile or compressive strains up to 6%, which greatly facilitates its integration with various 2D semiconductors. Our work suggests that Bi_{2}SeO_{5} ultrathin films can serve as excellent atomically flat encapsulation and dielectric layers for highperformance 2D electronic devices.[Figure not available: see fulltext.]

(2024) Science Bulletin. 69, 7, p. 885892 Abstract[All authors]
Vortices and bound states offer an effective means of comprehending the electronic properties of superconductors. Recently, surfacedependent vortex core states have been observed in the newly discovered kagome superconductors CsV_{3}Sb_{5}. Although the spatial distribution of the sharp zero energy conductance peak appears similar to Majorana bound states arising from the superconducting Dirac surface states, its origin remains elusive. In this study, we present observations of tunable vortex bound states (VBSs) in two chemicallydoped kagome superconductors Cs(V_{1−}_{x}Tr_{x})_{3}Sb_{5} (Tr = Ta or Ti), using lowtemperature scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy. The CsV_{3}Sb_{5}derived kagome superconductors exhibit fullgappairing superconductivity accompanied by the absence of longrange charge orders, in contrast to pristine CsV_{3}Sb_{5}. Zeroenergy conductance maps demonstrate a fielddriven continuous reorientation transition of the vortex lattice, suggesting multiband superconductivity. The Tadoped CsV_{3}Sb_{5} displays the conventional crossshaped spatial evolution of Carolide GennesMatricon bound states, while the Tidoped CsV_{3}Sb_{5} exhibits a sharp, nonsplit zerobias conductance peak (ZBCP) that persists over a long distance across the vortex. The spatial evolution of the nonsplit ZBCP is robust against surface effects and external magnetic field but is related to the doping concentrations. Our study reveals the tunable VBSs in multiband chemicallydoped CsV_{3}Sb_{5} system and offers fresh insights into previously reported Yshaped ZBCP in a nonquantumlimit condition at the surface of kagome superconductor.
2023

(2023) Nature. 624, p. 275281 Abstract[All authors]
The exceptional control of the electronic energy bands in atomically thin quantum materials has led to the discovery of several emergent phenomena^{1}. However, at present there is no versatile method for mapping the local band structure in advanced twodimensional materials devices in which the active layer is commonly embedded in the insulating layers and metallic gates. Using a scanning superconducting quantum interference device, here we image the de Haas–van Alphen quantum oscillations in a model system, the Bernalstacked trilayer graphene with dual gates, which shows several highly tunable bands^{2–4}. By resolving thermodynamic quantum oscillations spanning more than 100 Landau levels in low magnetic fields, we reconstruct the band structure and its evolution with the displacement field with excellent precision and nanoscale spatial resolution. Moreover, by developing Landaulevel interferometry, we show shearstraininduced pseudomagnetic fields and map their spatial dependence. In contrast to artificially induced large strain, which leads to pseudomagnetic fields of hundreds of tesla^{5–7}, we detect naturally occurring pseudomagnetic fields as low as 1 mT corresponding to graphene twisting by 1 millidegree, two orders of magnitude lower than the typical angle disorder in twisted bilayer graphene^{8–11}. This ability to resolve the local band structure and strain at the nanoscale level enables the characterization and use of tunable band engineering in practical van der Waals devices.

(2023) Nano Letters. 23, 21, p. 1008110088 Abstract[All authors]
Nontrivial electronic states are attracting intense attention in lowdimensional physics. Though chirality has been identified in charge states with a scalar order parameter, its intertwining with charge density waves (CDW), film thickness, and the impact on the electronic behaviors remain less well understood. Here, using scanning tunneling microscopy, we report a 2 × 2 chiral CDW as well as a strong suppression of the Te5p holeband backscattering in monolayer 1TTiTe_{2}. These exotic characters vanish in bilayer TiTe_{2} in a nonCDW state. Theoretical calculations prove that chirality comes from a helical stacking of the tripleq CDW components and, therefore, can persist at the twodimensional limit. Furthermore, the chirality renders the Te5p bands with an unconventional orbital texture that prohibits electron backscattering. Our study establishes TiTe_{2} as a promising playground for manipulating the chiral ground states at the monolayer limit and provides a novel path to engineer electronic properties from an orbital degree.

(2023) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 120, 48, e230554112. Abstract
The interplay between chirality and topology nurtures many exotic electronic properties. For instance, topological chiral semimetals display multifold chiral fermions that manifest nontrivial topological charge and spin texture. They are an ideal playground for exploring chiralitydriven exotic physical phenomena. In this work, we reveal a monopolelike orbitalmomentum locking texture on the threedimensional Fermi surfaces of topological chiral semimetals with B20 structures (e.g., RhSi and PdGa). This orbital texture enables a large orbital Hall effect (OHE) and a giant orbital magnetoelectric (OME) effect in the presence of current flow. Different enantiomers exhibit the same OHE which can be converted to the spin Hall effect by spinorbit coupling in materials. In contrast, the OME effect is chiralitydependent and much larger than its spin counterpart. Our work reveals the crucial role of orbital texture for understanding OHE and OME effects in topological chiral semimetals and paves the path for applications in orbitronics, spintronics, and enantiomer recognition.

(2023) Physical Review B. 108, 20, 205203. Abstract
Kagome metals are topological materials with a rich phase diagram featuring various charge density wave orders and even unconventional superconductivity. However, little is still known about possible spin polarized responses in these nonmagnetic compounds. Here, we perform ab initio calculations of the intrinsic spin Hall effect (SHE) in the kagome metals AV3Sb5 (A=Cs, Rb, K), CsTi3Bi5, and ScV6Sn6. We report large spin Hall conductivities, comparable with the Weyl semimetal TaAs. Additionally, in CsV3Sb5 the SHE is strongly renormalized by the charge density wave order. We can understand these results based on the topological properties of band structures, demonstrating that the SHE is dominated by the position and shape of the Dirac nodal lines in the kagome sublattice. Our results suggest kagome materials as a promising, tunable platform for future spintronics applications.

(2023) SCIPOST PHYSICS. 15, 4, 178. Abstract[All authors]
Strong singularities in the electronic density of states amplify correlation effects and play a key role in determining the ordering instabilities in various materials. Recently high order van Hove singularities (VHSs) with diverging powerlaw scaling have been classified in singleband electron models. We show that the 110 surface of Bismuth exhibits high order VHS with an usually high density of states divergence ∼ (E)^{−0.7}. Detailed mapping of the surface band structure using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy combined with firstprinciples calculations show that this singularity occurs in close proximity to Dirac bands located at the center of the surface Brillouin zone. The enhanced powerlaw divergence is shown to originate from the anisotropic flattening of the Dirac band just above the Dirac node. Such nearcoexistence of massless Dirac electrons and ultramassive saddle points enables to study the interplay of high order VHS and Dirac fermions.

(2023) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 120, 43, e230427412. Abstract[All authors]
Coupling together distinct correlated and topologically nontrivial electronic phases of matter can potentially induce novel electronic orders and phase transitions among them. Transition metal dichalcogenide compounds serve as a bedrock for exploration of such hybrid systems. They host a variety of exotic electronic phases, and their Van der Waals nature enables to admix them, either by exfoliation and stacking or by stoichiometric growth, and thereby induce novel correlated complexes. Here, we investigate the compound 4HbTaS_{2} that interleaves the Mottinsulating state of 1TTaS_{2} and the putative spin liquid it hosts together with the metallic state of 2HTaS_{2} and the lowtemperature superconducting phase it harbors using scanning tunneling spectroscopy. We reveal a thermodynamic phase diagram that hosts a firstorder quantum phase transition between a correlated Kondolike cluster state and a depleted flat band state. We demonstrate that this intrinsic transition can be induced by an electric field and temperature as well as by manipulation of the interlayer coupling with the probe tip, hence allowing to reversibly toggle between the Kondolike cluster and the depleted flat band states. The phase transition is manifested by a discontinuous change of the complete electronic spectrum accompanied by hysteresis and lowfrequency noise. We find that the shape of the transition line in the phase diagram is determined by the local compressibility and the entropy of the two electronic states. Our findings set such heterogeneous structures as an exciting platform for systematic investigation and manipulation of Mott–metal transitions and strongly correlated phases and quantum phase transitions therein.

(2023) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 120, 40, e230858812. Abstract[All authors]
A recently discovered group of kagome metals AV3Sb5 (A = K, Rb, Cs) exhibit a variety of intertwined unconventional electronic phases, which emerge from a puzzling charge density wave phase. Understanding of this chargeordered parent phase is crucial for deciphering the entire phase diagram. However, the mechanism of the charge density wave is still controversial, and its primary source of fluctuationsthe collective modeshas not been experimentally observed. Here, we use ultrashort laser pulses to melt the charge order in CsV3Sb5 and record the resulting dynamics using femtosecond angleresolved photoemission. We resolve the melting time of the charge order and directly observe its amplitude mode, imposing a fundamental limit for the fastest possible lattice rearrangement time. These observations together with ab initio calculations provide clear evidence for a structural rather than electronic mechanism of the charge density wave. Our findings pave the way for a better understanding of the unconventional phases hosted on the kagome lattice.

(2023) Nature Nanotechnology. 18, 8, p. 854860 Abstract[All authors]
Hysteretic switching of domain states is a salient characteristic of all ferroic materials and the foundation for their multifunctional applications. Ferrorotational order is emerging as a type of ferroic order that features structural rotations, but control over state switching remains elusive due to its invariance under both time reversal and spatial inversion. Here we demonstrate electrical switching of ferrorotational domain states in the chargedensitywave phases of nanometrethick 1TTaS_{2} crystals. Cooling from the highsymmetry phase to the ferrorotational phase under an external electric field induces domain state switching and domain wall formation, which is realized in a simple twoterminal configuration using a voltscale bias. Although the electric field does not couple with the order due to symmetry mismatch, it drives domain wall propagation to give rise to reversible, durable and nonvolatile isothermal state switching at room temperature. These results offer a route to the manipulation of ferrorotational order and its nanoelectronic applications.

(2023) Nature Communications. 14, 5163. Abstract[All authors]
Chirality has been a property of central importance in physics, chemistry and biology for more than a century. Recently, electrons were found to become spin polarized after transmitting through chiral molecules, crystals, and their hybrids. This phenomenon, called chiralityinduced spin selectivity (CISS), presents broad application potentials and farreaching fundamental implications involving intricate interplays among structural chirality, topological states, and electronic spin and orbitals. However, the microscopic picture of how chiral geometry influences electronic spin remains elusive, given the negligible spinorbit coupling (SOC) in organic molecules. In this work, we address this issue via a direct comparison of magnetoconductance (MC) measurements on magnetic semiconductorbased chiral molecular spin valves with normal metal electrodes of contrasting SOC strengths. The experiment reveals that a heavymetal electrode provides SOC to convert the orbital polarization induced by the chiral molecular structure to spin polarization. Our results illustrate the essential role of SOC in the metal electrode for the CISS spin valve effect. A tunneling model with a magnetochiral modulation of the potential barrier is shown to quantitatively account for the unusual transport behavior.

(2023) Nature Physics. 19, 7, p. 950955 Abstract[All authors]
Layerbylayer material engineering has produced interesting quantum phenomena such as interfacial superconductivity and the quantum anomalous Hall effect. However, probing electronic states layer by layer remains challenging. This is exemplified by the difficulty in understanding the layer origins of topological electronic states in magnetic topological insulators. Here we report a layerencoded frequencydomain photoemission experiment on the magnetic topological insulator (MnBi2Te4)(Bi2Te3) that characterizes the origins of its electronic states. Infrared laser excitations launch coherent lattice vibrations with the layer index encoded by the vibration frequency. Photoemission spectroscopy then tracks the electron dynamics, where the layer information is carried in the frequency domain. This layerfrequency correspondence shows wavefunction relocation of the topological surface state from the top magnetic layer into the buried second layer, reconciling the controversy over the vanishing brokensymmetry energy gap in (MnBi2Te4)(Bi2Te3) and its related compounds. The layerfrequency correspondence can be harnessed to disentangle electronic states layer by layer in a broad class of van der Waals superlattices.
Layering quantum materials can produce interesting phenomena by combining the different behaviour of electronic states in each layer. A layersensitive measurement technique provides insights into the physics of a magnetic topological insulator. 
(2023) npj Quantum Materials. 8, 39. Abstract
The recently discovered kagome materials AV(3)Sb(5) (A = K, Rb, Cs) attract intense research interest in intertwined topology, superconductivity, and charge density waves (CDW). Although the inplane 2 x 2 CDW is well studied, its outofplane structural correlation with the Fermi surface properties is less understood. In this work, we advance the theoretical description of quantum oscillations and investigate the Fermi surface properties in the threedimensional CDW phase of CsV3Sb5. We derived Fermienergyresolved and layerresolved quantum orbits that agree quantitatively with recent experiments in the fundamental frequency, cyclotron mass, and topology. We reveal a complex Dirac nodal network that would lead to a & pi; Berry phase of a quantum orbit in the spinless case. However, the phase shift of topological quantum orbits is contributed by the orbital moment and Zeeman effect besides the Berry phase in the presence of spinorbital coupling (SOC). Therefore, we can observe topological quantum orbits with a & pi; phase shift in otherwise trivial orbits without SOC, contrary to common perception. Our work reveals the rich topological nature of kagome materials and paves a path to resolve different topological origins of quantum orbits.

Quantum oscillations with topological phases in a kagome metal CsTi3Bi5(2023) arxiv.org. Abstract
Quantum oscillations can reveal Fermi surfaces and their topology in solids and provide a powerful tool for understanding transport and electronic properties. It is well established that the oscillation frequency maps the Fermi surface area by Onsager's relation. However, the topological phase accumulated along the quantum orbit remains difficult to estimate in calculations, because it includes multiple contributions from the Berry phase, orbital and spin moments, and also becomes gaugesensitive for degenerate states. In this work, we develop a gaugeindependent Wilson loop scheme to evaluate all topological phase contributions and apply it to CsTi3Bi5, an emerging kagome metal. We find that the spinorbit coupling dramatically alters the topological phase compared to the spinless case. Especially, oscillation phases of representative quantum orbits demonstrate a strong 3D signature despite their cylinderlike Fermi surface geometry. Our work reveals the Fermi surface topology of CsTi3Bi5 and paves the way for the theoretical investigation of quantum oscillations in realistic materials.

(2023) Nature (London). Abstract[All authors]
The Berry curvature and quantum metric are the imaginary part and real part, respectively, of the quantum geometric tensor which characterizes the topology of quantum states1. The former is known to generate a zoo of important discoveries such as quantum Hall effect and anomalous Hall effect (AHE)2,3, while the consequences of the quantum metric have rarely been probed by transport. Here we report the observation of quantum metricinduced nonlinear transport, including both nonlinear AHE and diodelike nonreciprocal longitudinal response, in thin films of a topological antiferromagnet, MnBi2Te4. Our observation reveals that the transverse and longitudinal nonlinear conductivities reverse signs when reversing the antiferromagnetic order, diminish above the Néel temperature, and are insensitive to disorder scattering, thus verifying their origin in the band structure topology. They also flip signs between electron and holedoped regions, in agreement with theoretical calculations. Our work provides a pathway to probe the quantum metric through nonlinear transport and to design magnetic nonlinear devices.

(2023) Nature Physics. 19, 6, p. 814822 Abstract[All authors]
Electron correlations often lead to emergent orders in quantum materials, and one example is the kagome lattice materials where topological states exist in the presence of strong correlations between electrons. This arises from the features of the electronic band structure that are associated with the kagome lattice geometry: flat bands induced by destructive interference of the electronic wavefunctions, topological Dirac crossings and a pair of van Hove singularities. Various correlated electronic phases have been discovered in kagome lattice materials, including magnetism, charge density waves, nematicity and superconductivity. Recently, a charge density wave was discovered in the magnetic kagome FeGe, providing a platform for understanding the interplay between charge order and magnetism in kagome materials. Here we observe all three electronic signatures of the kagome lattice in FeGe using angleresolved photoemission spectroscopy. The presence of van Hove singularities near the Fermi level is driven by the underlying magnetic exchange splitting. Furthermore, we show spectral evidence for the charge density wave as gaps near the Fermi level. Our observations point to the magnetic interactiondriven band modification resulting in the formation of the charge density wave and indicate an intertwined connection between the emergent magnetism and charge order in this moderately correlated kagome metal.

(2023) Advanced Energy Materials. 13, 24, 2300503. Abstract[All authors]
The prevalent global energy crisis calls for searching viable pathways for generating green hydrogen as an alternative energy resource. Dyesensitized photocatalytic water splitting is a feasible solution to produce green hydrogen. However, identifying suitable catalysts has been one of the bottlenecks in driving dyesensitized photocatalysis efficiently. In this work, a new class of electrocatalysts is reported based on the layered Weyl semimetals MIrTe_{4} (M = Nb, Ta) for the Eosin Y (EY)sensitized hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). NbIrTe_{4} and TaIrTe_{4} exhibit HER activities of ≈18 000 and 14 000 µmol g^{−1} respectively, after 10 h of irradiation with visible light. Timedependent UVVis spectroscopy and highpressure liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis shed light on the reaction dynamics and enable a deeper understanding of the observed trend in hydrogen evolution rates for MIrTe_{4}. MIrTe_{4} semimetals outperform transition metalbased Weyl semimetals in terms of catalytic HER activity using EY as photosensitizer and triethanolamine as the sacrificial agent. It is hypothesized that the topologyrelated band inversion in MIrTe_{4} Weyl semimetals promotes a high density of M dstates near the Fermi level, driving their high catalytic performance. This study introduces a new class of layered Weyl semimetals as efficient catalysts, and provides perspectives for designing topologyenhanced catalysts.

(2023) Physical review letters. 130, 26, 266402. Abstract
Kagome materials are emerging platforms for studying charge and spin orders. In this Letter, we have revealed a rich lattice instability in a Z_{2} kagome metal ScV_{6}Sn_{6} by firstprinciples calculations. Beyond verifying the √3×√3×3 charge density wave (CDW) order observed by the recent experiment, we further identified three more possible CDW structures, i.e., √3×√3×2 CDW with P6/mmm symmetry, 2×2×2 CDW with Immm symmetry, and 2×2×2 CDW with P6/mmm symmetry. The former two are more energetically favored than the √3×√3×3 phase, while the third one is comparable in energy. These CDW distortions involve mainly outofplane motions of Sc and Sn atoms, while V atoms constituting the kagome net are almost unchanged. We attribute the lattice instability to the smallness of Sc atomic radius. In contrast, such instability disappears in its sister compounds RV_{6}Sn_{6} (R is Y, or a rareearth element), which exhibit quite similar electronic band structures to the Sc compound, because R has a larger atomic radius. Our work indicates that ScV_{6}Sn_{6} might exhibit varied CDW phases in different experimental conditions and provides insights to explore rich charge orders in kagome materials.

(2023) Nature Communications. 14, 3053. Abstract
Can a generic magnetic insulator exhibit a Hall current? The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) is one example of an insulating bulk carrying a quantized Hall conductivity while insulators with zero Chern number present zero Hall conductance in the linear response regime. Here, we find that a general magnetic insulator possesses a nonlinear Hall conductivity quadratic to the electric field if the system breaks inversion symmetry, which can be identified as a new type of multiferroic coupling. This conductivity originates from an induced orbital magnetization due to virtual interband transitions. We identify three contributions to the wavepacket motion, a velocity shift, a positional shift, and a Berry curvature renormalization. In contrast to the crystalline solid, we find that this nonlinear Hall conductivity vanishes for Landau levels of a 2D electron gas, indicating a fundamental difference between the QAHE and the integer quantum Hall effect.

(2023) Nature Communications. 14, 1, 2334. Abstract
Electron hydrodynamics typically emerges in electron fluids with a high electron–electron collision rate. However, new experiments with thin flakes of WTe_{2} have revealed that other momentumconserving scattering processes can replace the role of the electron–electron interaction, thereby leading to a novel, socalled parahydrodynamic regime. Here, we develop the kinetic theory for parahydrodynamic transport. To this end, we consider a ballistic electron gas in a thin threedimensional sheet where the momentumrelaxing (lmr) and momentumconserving (lmc) mean free paths are decreased due to boundary scattering from a rough surface. The resulting effective mean free path of the inplane components of the electronic flow is then expressed in terms of microscopic parameters of the sheet boundaries, predicting that a parahydrodynamic regime with lmr ≫ lmc emerges generically in ultraclean threedimensional materials. Using our approach, we recover the transport properties of WTe_{2} in the parahydrodynamic regime in good agreement with existing experiments.

(2023) SciPost Physics. 14, 4, 082. Abstract
Nonlinear electrical response permits a unique window into effects of band structure geometry. It can be calculated either starting from a Boltzmann approach for small frequencies, or using Kubo's formula for resonances at finite frequency. However, a precise connection between both approaches has not been established. Focusing on the second order nonlinear response, here we show how the semiclassical limit can be recovered from perturbation theory in the velocity gauge, provided that finite quasiparticle lifetimes are taken into account. We find that matrix elements related to the band geometry combine in this limit to produce the semiclassical nonlinear conductivity. We demonstrate the power of the new formalism by deriving a quantum contribution to the nonlinear conductivity which is of order τ^{−1} in the relaxation time τ, which is principally inaccessible within the Boltzmann approach. We outline which steps can be generalized to higher orders in the applied perturbation, and comment about potential experimental signatures of our results.

(2023) Physical review letters. 130, 12, 126702. Abstract
Many experiments observed a metallic behavior at zero magnetic fields (antiferromagnetic phase, AFM) in MnBi_{2}Te_{4} thin film transport, which coincides with gapless surface states observed by angleresolved photoemission spectroscopy, while it can become a Chern insulator at field larger than 6 T (ferromagnetic phase, FM). Thus, the zerofield surface magnetism was once speculated to be different from the bulk AFM phase. However, recent magnetic force microscopy refutes this assumption by detecting persistent AFM order on the surface. In this Letter, we propose a mechanism related to surface defects that can rationalize these contradicting observations in different experiments. We find that coantisites (exchanging Mn and Bi atoms in the surface van der Waals layer) can strongly suppress the magnetic gap down to several meV in the AFM phase without violating the magnetic order but preserve the magnetic gap in the FM phase. The different gap sizes between AFM and FM phases are caused by the exchange interaction cancellation or collaboration of the top two van der Waals layers manifested by defectinduced surface charge redistribution among the top two van der Waals layers. This theory can be validated by the position and fielddependent gap in future surface spectroscopy measurements. Our work suggests suppressing related defects in samples to realize the quantum anomalous Hall insulator or axion insulator at zero fields.

(2023) Nature Communications. 14, 1642. Abstract
During the past two decades, it has been established that a nontrivial electron wavefunction topology generates an anomalous Hall effect (AHE), which shows itself as a Hall conductivity nonlinear in magnetic field. Here, we report on an unprecedented case of fieldlinear AHE. In Mn_{3}Sn, a kagome magnet, the outofplane Hall response, which shows an abrupt jump, was discovered to be a case of AHE. We find now that the inplane Hall response, which is perfectly linear in magnetic field, is set by the Berry curvature of the wavefunction. The amplitude of the Hall response and its concomitant Nernst signal exceed by far what is expected in the semiclassical picture. We argue that magnetic field induces outofplane spin canting and thereafter gives rise to nontrivial spin chirality on the kagome lattice. In band structure, we find that the spin chirality modifies the topology by gapping out Weyl nodal lines unknown before, accounting for the AHE observed. Our work reveals intriguing unification of realspace Berry phase from spin chirality and momentumspace Berry curvature in a kagome material.

(2023) Nature Materials. Abstract[All authors]
The scaling of siliconbased transistors at subtennanometre technology nodes faces challenges such as interface imperfection and gate current leakage for an ultrathin silicon channel1,2. For nextgeneration nanoelectronics, highmobility twodimensional (2D) layered semiconductors with an atomic thickness and danglingbondfree surfaces are expected as channel materials to achieve smaller channel sizes, less interfacial scattering and more efficient gatefield penetration1,2. However, further progress towards 2D electronics is hindered by factors such as the lack of a high dielectric constant (κ) dielectric with an atomically flat and danglingbondfree surface3,4. Here, we report a facile synthesis of a singlecrystalline highκ (κ of roughly 16.5) van der Waals layered dielectric Bi2SeO5. The centimetrescale single crystal of Bi2SeO5 can be efficiently exfoliated to an atomically flat nanosheet as large as 250 × 200 μm2 and as thin as monolayer. With these Bi2SeO5 nanosheets as dielectric and encapsulation layers, 2D materials such as Bi2O2Se, MoS2 and graphene show improved electronic performances. For example, in 2D Bi2O2Se, the quantum Hall effect is observed and the carrier mobility reaches 470,000 cm2 V−1 s−1 at 1.8 K. Our finding expands the realm of dielectric and opens up a new possibility for lowering the gate voltage and power consumption in 2D electronics and integrated circuits.

(2023) Nature Photonics. 17, 2, p. 193199 Abstract
Chiral circularly polarized (CP) light is central to many photonic technologies, from the optical communication of spin information to novel display and imaging technologies. As such, there has been significant effort in the development of chiral emissive materials that enable the emission of strongly dissymmetric CP light from organic lightemitting diodes (OLEDs). It has been widely accepted that the molecular chirality of the active layer determines the favoured light handedness of the CP emission in such devices, regardless of the lightemitting direction. Here we discover that, unconventionally, oppositely propagating CP light exhibits opposite handedness, and reversing the current flow in OLEDs also switches the handedness of the emitted CP light. This directiondependent CP emission boosts the net polarization rate by orders of magnitude by resolving an established issue in CPOLEDs, where the CP light reflected by the back electrode typically erodes the measured dissymmetry. Through detailed theoretical analysis, we assign this anomalous CP emission to a ubiquitous topological electronic property in chiral materials, namely orbital–momentum locking. Our work paves the way to design new chiroptoelectronic devices and probes the close connections between chiral materials, topological electrons and CP light in the quantum regime.

(2023) Physical Review Research. 5, 1, 013079. Abstract[All authors]
Dirac semimetals feature Dirac cones with topologically nontrivial states in the bulk that are protected by crystalline symmetries. They attract considerable attention due to rich quantum states and properties of interest, such as high Fermi velocities, mobility, and small effective masses. Here, we show that a ternary intermetallic BaAuSb crystal hosts both trivial and nontrivial topological Dirac states in the bulk. The nontrivial Fermisurface pocket at the Brillouin zone center is characterized with only a few hundredths of a bare electron mass and with very high mobility. All parts of the Fermi surface detected by quantum oscillations, topologically trivial or nontrivial, have carriers with unusually high Fermi velocities and small masses. These conducting states may be coupled with magnetic moments in materials where Ba is replaced by magnetic rareearth atoms.

Heterogeneous Tadichalcogenide bilayer: heavy fermions or doped Mott physics?(2023) arxiv.org. Abstract
Controlling and understanding electron correlations in quantum matter is one of the most challenging tasks in materials engineering. In the past years a plethora of new puzzling correlated states have been found by carefully stacking and twisting twodimensional van der Waals materials of different kind. Unique to these stacked structures is the emergence of correlated phases not foreseeable from the single layers alone. In Tadichalcogenide heterostructures made of a good metallic 1H and a Mottinsulating 1Tlayer, recent reports have evidenced a crossbreed itinerant and localized nature of the electronic excitations, similar to what is typically found in heavy fermion systems. Here, we put forward a new interpretation based on firstprinciples calculations which indicates a sizeable charge transfer of electrons (0.40.6 e) from 1T to 1H layers at an elevated interlayer distance. We accurately quantify the strength of the interlayer hybridization which allows us to unambiguously determine that the system is much closer to a doped Mott insulator than to a heavy fermion scenario. Tabased heterolayers provide therefore a new ground for quantummaterials engineering in the regime of heavily doped Mott insulators hybridized with metallic states at a van der Waals distance.

(2023) Nature (London). 614, 7949, p. 682687 Abstract[All authors]
The invention of scanning probe microscopy revolutionized the way electronic phenomena are visualized1. Whereas presentday probes can access a variety of electronic properties at a single location in space2, a scanning microscope that can directly probe the quantum mechanical existence of an electron at several locations would provide direct access to key quantum properties of electronic systems, so far unreachable. Here, we demonstrate a conceptually new type of scanning probe microscope—the quantum twisting microscope (QTM)—capable of performing local interference experiments at its tip. The QTM is based on a unique van der Waals tip, allowing the creation of pristine twodimensional junctions, which provide a multitude of coherently interfering paths for an electron to tunnel into a sample. With the addition of a continuously scanned twist angle between the tip and sample, this microscope probes electrons along a line in momentum space similar to how a scanning tunnelling microscope probes electrons along a line in real space. Through a series of experiments, we demonstrate roomtemperature quantum coherence at the tip, study the twist angle evolution of twisted bilayer graphene, directly image the energy bands of monolayer and twisted bilayer graphene and, finally, apply large local pressures while visualizing the gradual flattening of the lowenergy band of twisted bilayer graphene. The QTM opens the way for new classes of experiments on quantum materials.

(2023) Nature Physics. Abstract[All authors]
Layered crystalline materials that consist of transition metal atoms on a kagome network have emerged as a versatile platform for the study of unusual electronic phenomena. For example, in the vanadiumbased kagome superconductors AV_{3}Sb_{5} (where A can stand for K, Cs or Rb), there is a parent charge density wave phase that appears to simultaneously break both the translational and rotational symmetries of the lattice. Here we show a contrasting situation, where electronic nematic order—the breaking of rotational symmetry without the breaking of translational symmetry—can occur without a corresponding charge density wave. We use spectroscopicimaging scanning tunnelling microscopy to study the kagome metal CsTi_{3}Bi_{5} that is isostructural to AV_{3}Sb_{5} but with a titanium atom kagome network. CsTi_{3}Bi_{5} does not exhibit any detectable charge density wave state, but a comparison to density functional theory calculations reveals substantial electronic correlation effects at low energies. In comparing the amplitudes of scattering wave vectors along different directions, we discover an electronic anisotropy that breaks the sixfold symmetry of the lattice, arising from both inplane and outofplane titaniumderived d orbitals. Our work uncovers the role of electronic orbitals in CsTi_{3}Bi_{5}, suggestive of a hexagonal analogue of the nematic bond order in Febased superconductors.

(2023) Nature Communications. 14, 364. Abstract[All authors]
Nonlinear Hall effect (NLHE) is a new type of Hall effect with wide application prospects. Practical device applications require strong NLHE at room temperature (RT). However, previously reported NLHEs are all lowtemperature phenomena except for the surface NLHE of TaIrTe4. Bulk RT NLHE is highly desired due to its ability to generate large photocurrent. Here, we show the spinvalley locked Dirac state in BaMnSb2 can generate a strong bulk NLHE at RT. In the microscale devices, we observe the typical signature of an intrinsic NLHE, i.e. the transverse Hall voltage quadratically scales with the longitudinal current as the current is applied to the Berry curvature dipole direction. Furthermore, we also demonstrate our nonlinear Hall device’s functionality in wireless microwave detection and frequency doubling. These findings broaden the coupled spin and valley physics from 2D systems into a 3D system and lay a foundation for exploring bulk NLHE’s applications.
2022

(2022) Nature Physics. 18, 12, p. 14701475 Abstract
The kagome lattice provides a fascinating playground to study geometrical frustration, topology and strong correlations. The newly discovered kagome metals AV3Sb5 (where A can refer to K, Rb or Cs) exhibit phenomena including topological band structure, symmetrybreaking chargedensity waves and superconductivity. Nevertheless, the nature of the symmetry breaking in the chargedensity wave phase is not yet clear, despite the fact that it is crucial in order to understand whether the superconductivity is unconventional. In this work, we perform scanning birefringence microscopy on all three members of this family and find that sixfold rotation symmetry is broken at the onset of the chargedensity wave transition in all these compounds. We show that the three nematic domains are oriented at 120° to each other and propose that staggered chargedensity wave orders with a relative π phase shift between layers is a possibility that can explain these observations. We also perform magnetooptical Kerr effect and circular dichroism measurements. The onset of both signals is at the transition temperature, indicating broken timereversal symmetry and the existence of the longsought loop currents in that phase.

(2022) Nano Letters. 22, 24, p. 98159822 Abstract[All authors]
Tailoring magnetic orders in topological insulators is critical to the realization of topological quantum phenomena. An outstanding challenge is to find a material where atomic defects lead to tunable magnetic orders while maintaining a nontrivial topology. Here, by combining magnetization measurements, angleresolved photoemission spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, we reveal disorderenabled, tunable magnetic ground states in MnBi6Te10. In the ferromagnetic phase, an energy gap of 15 meV is resolved at the Dirac point on the MnBi2Te4 termination. In contrast, antiferromagnetic MnBi6Te10 exhibits gapless topological surface states on all terminations. Transmission electron microscopy and magnetization measurements reveal substantial Mn vacancies and Mn migration in ferromagnetic MnBi6Te10. We provide a conceptual framework where a cooperative interplay of these defects drives a delicate change of overall magnetic ground state energies and leads to tunable magnetic topological orders. Our work provides a clear pathway for nanoscale defectengineering toward the realization of topological quantum phases.

(2022) Science Bulletin. 67, 21, p. 21762185 Abstract[All authors]
The vanadiumbased kagome superconductor CsV_{3}Sb_{5} has attracted tremendous attention due to its unexcepted anomalous Hall effect (AHE), charge density waves (CDWs), nematicity, and a pseudogap pair density wave (PDW) coexisting with unconventional strongcoupling superconductivity. The origins of CDWs, unconventional superconductivity, and their correlation with different electronic states in this kagome system are of great significance, but so far, are still under debate. Chemical doping in the kagome layer provides one of the most direct ways to reveal the intrinsic physics, but remains unexplored. Here, we report, for the first time, the synthesis of Tisubstituted CsV_{3}Sb_{5} single crystals and its rich phase diagram mapping the evolution of intertwining electronic states. The Ti atoms directly substitute for V in the kagome layers. CsV_{3−}_{x}Ti_{x}Sb_{5} shows two distinct superconductivity phases upon substitution. The Ti slightlysubstituted phase displays an unconventional Vshaped superconductivity gap, coexisting with weakening CDW, PDW, AHE, and nematicity. The Ti highlysubstituted phase has a Ushaped superconductivity gap concomitant with a shortrange rotation symmetry breaking CDW, while longrange CDW, twofold symmetry of inplane resistivity, AHE, and PDW are absent. Furthermore, we also demonstrate the chemical substitution of V atoms with other elements such as Cr and Nb, showing a different modulation on the superconductivity phases and CDWs. These findings open up a way to synthesise a new family of doped CsV_{3}Sb_{5} materials, and further represent a new platform for tuning the different correlated electronic states and superconducting pairing in kagome superconductors.

(2022) Communications Physics. 5, 303. Abstract
Diverse nonlinear optical responses of metallic band states have been characterized in terms of the Berry curvature dipole (BCD) or other multipole structures of Berry curvature. Here, we find that the second harmonic optical responses of insulators to subbandgap light are also delicately associated with the interband BCD. We performed realtime timedependent density functional theory calculations and theoretically analyzed the second harmonic generation susceptibility tensors. The twoband term of the secondorder susceptibility is precisely proportional to the interband BCD, which is particularly significant for lowsymmetric systems with a small bandgap. We show that higherorder responses to nonperturbative strong fields can be associated with higher poles of Berry curvature. We suggest that the consequences of symmetry lowering can be detected by nonlinear optical responses through adjustments of the dipole or other multipole structures of the Berry curvature texture.

(2022) Physical review. B. 106, 20, 205424. Abstract
We propose a novel heterostructure to achieve chiral topological superconductivity in two dimensions. A substrate with a large Rashba spinorbit coupling energy is brought in proximity to a twisted bilayer of thin films exfoliated from a hightemperature cuprate superconductor. The combined system is then exposed to an outofplane magnetic field. The rare d + id pairing symmetry expected to occur in such a system allows for nontrivial topology; specifically, in contrast to the case of the twisted bilayer in isolation, the substrate induces an odd Chern number. The resulting phase is characterized by the presence of a Majorana zero mode in each vortex.

(2022) ACS Nano. 16, 11, p. 1860118607 Abstract
Chiralityinduced spin selectivity (CISS) refers to the fact that electrons get spin polarized after passing through chiral molecules in a nanoscale transport device or in photoemission experiments. In CISS, chiral molecules are commonly believed to be a spin filter through which one favored spin transmits and the opposite spin gets reflected; that is, transmitted and reflected electrons exhibit opposite spin polarization. In this work, we point out that such a spin filter scenario contradicts the principle that equilibrium spin current must vanish. Instead, we find that both transmitted and reflected electrons present the same type of spin polarization, which is actually ubiquitous for a twoterminal device. More accurately, chiral molecules play the role of a spin polarizer rather than a spin filter. The direction of spin polarization is determined by the molecule chirality and the electron incident direction. And the magnitude of spin polarization relies on local spinorbit coupling in the device. Our work brings a deeper understanding on CISS and interprets recent experiments, for example, the CISSdriven anomalous Hall effect.

(2022) Physical review letters. 129, 15, 156401. Abstract[All authors]
Chiral materials have attracted significant research interests as they exhibit intriguing physical properties, such as chiral optical response, spinmomentum locking, and chiral induced spin selectivity. Recently, layered transition metal dichalcogenide 1TTaS_{2} has been found to host a chiral charge density wave (CDW) order. Nevertheless, the physical consequences of the chiral order, for example, in electronic structures and the optical properties, are yet to be explored. Here, we report the spectroscopic visualization of an emergent chiral electronic band structure in the CDW phase, characterized by windmillshaped Fermi surfaces. We uncover a remarkable chiralitydependent circularly polarized Raman response due to the salient inplane chiral symmetry of CDW, although the ordinary circular dichroism vanishes. Chiral Fermi surfaces and anomalous Raman responses coincide with the CDW transition, proving their lattice origin. Our Letter paves a path to manipulate the chiral electronic and optical properties in twodimensional materials and explore applications in polarization optics and spintronics.

(2022) Physical Review Materials. 6, 10, 104204. Abstract
Magnetic topological insulators (MnBi_{2}Te_{4})(Bi_{2}Te_{3})_{n} were anticipated to exhibit magnetic energy gaps, while recent spectroscopic studies did not observe them. Thus, magnetism on the surface is under debate. In this work, we propose another symmetry criterion to probe surface magnetism. Because of both timereversal symmetry breaking and inversion symmetry breaking, we demonstrate that the surface band structure violates momentuminversion symmetry and leads to a threefold rather than sixfold rotational symmetry on the Fermi surface if corresponding surface states couple strongly to the surface magnetism. Such a momentuminversion symmetry violation is significant along the ΓK direction for surface bands on the (0001) plane, which serves as a criterion for determining the surface magnetism.

(2022) Physical review. B. 106, 14, 144415. Abstract[All authors]
We present a ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) method that we term the "Ferris" FMR. It is wideband, has at least an order of magnitude higher sensitivity as compared to conventional FMR systems, and measures the absorption line rather than its derivative. It is based on largeamplitude modulation of the externally applied magnetic field that effectively magnifies signatures of the spintransfer torque making its measurement possible even at the wafer level. Using the Ferris FMR, we report the generation of spin currents from the orbital Hall effect taking place in pure Cu and Al. To this end, we use the spinorbit coupling of a thin Pt layer introduced at the interface that converts the orbital current to a measurable spin current. While Cu reveals a large effective spin Hall angle exceeding that of Pt, Al possesses an orbital Hall effect of opposite polarity in agreement with the theoretical predictions. Our results demonstrate additional spinand orbit functionality for two important metals in the semiconductor industry beyond their primary use as interconnects with all the advantages in power, scaling, and cost.

(2022) Nature Communications. 13, 6191. Abstract
Symmetries, quantum geometries and electronic correlations are among the most important ingredients of condensed matters, and lead to nontrivial phenomena in experiments, for example, nonreciprocal charge transport. Of particular interest is whether the nonreciprocal transport can be manipulated. Here, we report the controllable large nonreciprocal charge transport in the intrinsic magnetic topological insulator MnBi2Te4. The current direction relevant resistance is observed at chiral edges, which is magnetically switchable, edge position sensitive and stacking sequence controllable. Applying gate voltage can also effectively manipulate the nonreciprocal response. The observation and manipulation of nonreciprocal charge transport reveals the fundamental role of chirality in charge transport of MnBi2Te4, and pave ways to develop van der Waals spintronic devices by chirality engineering.

(2022) Nature Communications. 13, 6348. Abstract[All authors]
The electronic instabilities in CsV_{3}Sb_{5} are believed to originate from the V 3delectrons on the kagome plane, however the role of Sb 5pelectrons for 3dimensional orders is largely unexplored. Here, using resonant tender Xray scattering and highpressure Xray scattering, we report a rare realization of conjoined charge density waves (CDWs) in CsV_{3}Sb_{5}, where a 2 × 2 × 1 CDW in the kagome sublattice and a Sb 5pelectron assisted 2 × 2 × 2 CDW coexist. At ambient pressure, we discover a resonant enhancement on Sb L_{1}edge (2s→5p) at the 2 × 2 × 2 CDW wavevectors. The resonance, however, is absent at the 2 × 2 × 1 CDW wavevectors. Applying hydrostatic pressure, CDW transition temperatures are separated, where the 2 × 2 × 2 CDW emerges 4 K above the 2 × 2 × 1 CDW at 1 GPa. These observations demonstrate that symmetrybreaking phases in CsV_{3}Sb_{5} go beyond the minimal framework of kagome electronic bands near van Hove filling.

(2022) Cell Reports Physical Science. 3, 10, 101094. Abstract[All authors]
The coexistence of superconductivity and topology holds the potential to realize exotic quantum states of matter. Here, we report superconductivity induced by high pressure in three thalliumbased materials, covering the phase transition from a normal insulator (TlBiS_{2}) to a topological insulator (TlBiSe_{2}) through a Dirac semimetal (TlBiSeS). By increasing the pressure up to 60 GPa, we observe superconductivity phase diagrams with maximal critical temperature (T_{c}) values at 6.0–8.1 K. Our density functional theory calculations reveal topological surface states in superconductivity phases for all three compounds. Our study paves the path to explore topological superconductivity and topological phase transitions.

(2022) Advanced Science. 9, 27, 2202564. Abstract
Boundary obstructed topological phases caused by Wannier orbital shift between ordinary atomic sites are proposed, which, however, cannot be indicated by symmetry eigenvalues at high symmetry momenta (symmetry indicators) in bulk. On the open boundary, Wannier charge centers can shift to different atoms from those in bulk, leading to ingap surface states, higherorder hinge states or corner states. To demonstrate such orbital shiftinduced boundary obstructed topological insulators, eight material candidates are predicted, all of which are overlooked in the present topological databases. Metallic surface states, hinge states, or corner states cover the large bulk energy gap (e.g., more than 1 eV in TlGaTe2) at related boundary, which are ready for experimental detection. Additionally, these materials are also fragile topological insulators with hourglasslike surface states.

(2022) Nature Communications. 13, p. 7 5134. Abstract[All authors]
Van der Waals heterostructures offer great versatility to tailor unique interactions at the atomically flat interfaces between dissimilar layered materials and induce novel physical phenomena. By bringing monolayer 1 T’ WTe2, a twodimensional quantum spin Hall insulator, and fewlayer Cr2Ge2Te6, an insulating ferromagnet, into close proximity in an heterostructure, we introduce a ferromagnetic order in the former via the interfacial exchange interaction. The ferromagnetism in WTe2 manifests in the anomalous Nernst effect, anomalous Hall effect as well as anisotropic magnetoresistance effect. Using local electrodes, we identify separate transport contributions from the metallic edge and insulating bulk. When driven by an AC current, the second harmonic voltage responses closely resemble the anomalous Nernst responses to AC temperature gradient generated by nonlocal heater, which appear as nonreciprocal signals with respect to the induced magnetization orientation. Our results from different electrodes reveal spinpolarized edge states in the magnetized quantum spin Hall insulator.

(2022) Nature Communications. 13, 5744. Abstract
Electrical manipulation of spins is essential to design stateoftheart spintronic devices and commonly relies on the spin current injected from a second heavymetal material. The fact that chiral antiferromagnets produce spin current inspires us to explore the magnetization switching of chiral spins using selfgenerated spin torque. Here, we demonstrate the electric switching of noncollinear antiferromagnetic state in Mn_{3}Sn by observing a crossover from conventional spinorbit torque to the selfgenerated spin torque when increasing the MgO thickness in Ta/MgO/Mn_{3}Sn polycrystalline films. The spin current injection from the Ta layer can be controlled and even blocked by varying the MgO thickness, but the switching sustains even at a large MgO thickness. Furthermore, the switching polarity reverses when the MgO thickness exceeds around 3 nm, which cannot be explained by the spinorbit torque scenario due to spin current injection from the Ta layer. Evident currentinduced switching is also observed in MgO/Mn_{3}Sn and Ti/Mn_{3}Sn bilayers, where external injection of spin Hall current to Mn_{3}Sn is negligible. The intergrain spintransfer torque induced by spinpolarized current explains the experimental observations. Our findings provide an alternative pathway for electrical manipulation of noncollinear antiferromagnetic state without resorting to the conventional bilayer structure.

(2022) Nature Physics. 18, 8, p. 885892 Abstract[All authors]
Charge carriers in magicangle graphene come in eight flavours described by a combination of their spin, valley and sublattice polarizations. When inversion and timereversal symmetries are broken, this ‘flavour’ degeneracy can be lifted, and their corresponding bands can be sequentially filled. Due to their nontrivial band topology and Berry curvature, each band is classified by a topological Chern number C, leading to quantum anomalous Hall and Chern insulator states. Using a scanning superconducting quantum interference device on a tip, we image the nanoscale equilibrium orbital magnetism induced by the Berry curvature, the polarity of which is governed by C, and detect its two constituent components associated with the drift and selfrotation of the electronic wavepackets. At integer filling v = 1, we observe a zerofield Chern insulator, which—rather than being described by a global topologically invariant C—forms a mosaic of microscopic patches of C = −1, 0 or 1. On further filling, we find a firstorder phase transition due to the recondensation of electrons from valley K to K′, leading to irreversible flips of the local Chern number and magnetization, as well as to the formation of valley domain walls, giving rise to hysteretic anomalous Hall resistance.

(2022) Physical Review B. 106, 4, L041111. Abstract
Recent studies have shown that moiré flat bands in twisted bilayer graphene (TBG) can acquire nontrivial Berry curvatures when aligned with a hexagonal boron nitride substrate, which can be manifested as a correlated Chern insulator near the 3/4 filling. In this Letter, we show that the large Berry curvatures in the moiré bands lead to a strong nonlinear Hall (NLH) effect in strained TBG with general filling factors. Under a weak uniaxial strain ∼0.1%, the Berry curvature dipole which characterizes the nonlinear Hall response can be as large as ∼200Å, exceeding the values of previously known nonlinear Hall materials by two orders of magnitude. The dependence of the giant NLH effect as a function of electric gating, strain, and twist angle is further investigated systematically. Importantly, we point out that the giant NLH effect appears generically for a twist angle near the magic angle due to the strong susceptibility of nearly flat moiré bands to symmetry breaking induced by strains, which can even induce a topological band inversion. Our results establish TBG as a promising platform for investigating nonlinear effects such as the NLH effect, the nonlinear Nernst effect, and the nonlinear thermal Hall effect due to its giant Berry curvature dipole.

(2022) Nature (London). 607, 7917, p. 7480 Abstract[All authors]
Vortices are the hallmarks of hydrodynamic flow. Strongly interacting electrons in ultrapure conductors can display signatures of hydrodynamic behaviour, including negative nonlocal resistance1,2,3,4, higherthanballistic conduction5,6,7, Poiseuille flow in narrow channels8,9,10 and violation of the Wiedemann–Franz law11. Here we provide a visualization of whirlpools in an electron fluid. By using a nanoscale scanning superconducting quantum interference device on a tip12, we image the current distribution in a circular chamber connected through a small aperture to a currentcarrying strip in the highpurity type II Weyl semimetal WTe2. In this geometry, the Gurzhi momentum diffusion length and the size of the aperture determine the vortex stability phase diagram. We find that vortices are present for only small apertures, whereas the flow is laminar (nonvortical) for larger apertures. Near the vorticaltolaminar transition, we observe the single vortex in the chamber splitting into two vortices; this behaviour is expected only in the hydrodynamic regime and is not anticipated for ballistic transport. These findings suggest a new mechanism of hydrodynamic flow in thin pure crystals such that the spatial diffusion of electron momenta is enabled by smallangle scattering at the surfaces instead of the routinely invoked electron–electron scattering, which becomes extremely weak at low temperatures. This surfaceinduced parahydrodynamics, which mimics many aspects of conventional hydrodynamics including vortices, opens new possibilities for exploring and using electron fluidics in highmobility electron systems.

(2022) Nature Communications. 13, 1, 3461. Abstract[All authors]
The kagome lattice provides a fertile platform to explore novel symmetrybreaking states. Chargedensity wave (CDW) instabilities have been recently discovered in a new kagome metal family, commonly considered to arise from Fermisurface instabilities. Here we report the observation of Ramanactive CDW amplitude modes in CsV_{3}Sb_{5}, which are collective excitations typically thought to emerge out of frozen soft phonons, although phonon softening is elusive experimentally. The amplitude modes strongly hybridize with other superlattice modes, imparting them with clear temperaturedependent frequency shift and broadening, rarely seen in other known CDW materials. Both the mode mixing and the large amplitude mode frequencies suggest that the CDW exhibits the character of strong electronphonon coupling, a regime in which phonon softening can cease to exist. Our work highlights the importance of the lattice degree of freedom in the CDW formation and points to the complex nature of the mechanism.

(2022) Nature Photonics. 16, 6, p. 428432 Abstract[All authors]
Intense light–matter interactions have revolutionized our ability to probe and manipulate quantum systems at subfemtosecond timescales 1 , opening routes to the alloptical control of electronic currents in solids at petahertz rates 2–7 . Such control typically requires electricfield amplitudes in the range of almost volts per angstrom, when the voltage drop across a lattice site becomes comparable to the characteristic bandgap energies. In this regime, intense light–matter interaction induces notable modifications to the electronic and optical properties 8–10 , dramatically modifying the crystal band structure. Yet, identifying and characterizing such modifications remain an outstanding problem. As the oscillating electric field changes within the driving field’s cycle, does the band structure follow and how can it be defined? Here we address this fundamental question, proposing alloptical spectroscopy to probe the laserinduced closing of the bandgap between adjacent conduction bands. Our work reveals the link between nonlinear light–matter interactions in strongly driven crystals and the subcycle modifications in their effective band structure.

Anomalous circularly polarized light emission caused by the chiralitydriven topological electronic properties(2022) arxiv.org. Abstract
Chirality of organic molecules is characterized by selective absorption and emission of circularlypolarized light (CPL). A consensus for chiral emission (absorption) is that the molecular chirality determines the favored light handedness regardless of the lightemitting (incident) direction. Refreshing above textbook knowledge, we discover an unconventional CPL emission effect in organic lightemitting diodes (OLEDs), where oppositely propagating CPLs exhibit opposite handedness. This directiondependent CPL emission boosts the net polarization rate by orders of magnitude in OLED devices by resolving the longlasting backelectrode reflection problem. The anomalous CPL emission originates in a ubiquitous topological electronic property in chiral materials, i.e., the orbitalmomentum locking. Our work paves the way to design novel chiroptoelectronic devices and reveals that chiral materials, topological electrons, and CPL have intimate connections in the quantum regime.

(2022) Physical Review B. 105, 16, 165130. Abstract
Magnetic topological insulators (MnBi_{2}Te_{4})(Bi_{2}Te_{3})_{n} (n=0,1,2,3) are promising to realize exotic topological states such as the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) and axion insulator (AI), where the Bi_{2}Te_{3} layer introduces versatility to engineer electronic and magnetic properties. However, whether surface states on the Bi_{2}Te_{3 }terminated facet are gapless or gapped is debated, and its consequences in thinfilm properties are rarely discussed. In this work, we find that the Bi_{2}Te_{3} terminated facets are gapless for n≥1 compounds by calculations. Although the surface Bi_{2}Te_{3} (one layer or more) and underlying MnBi_{2}Te_{4} layers hybridize and give rise to a gap, such a hybridization gap may overlap with bulk valence bands, leading to a gapless surface after all. Such a metallic surface poses a fundamental challenge to realize QAHE or AI, which requires an insulating gap in thin films with at least one Bi_{2}Te_{3} surface. In theory, the insulating phase can still be realized in a film if both surfaces are MnBi_{2}Te_{4} layers. Otherwise, it requires that the film thickness be less than 1020nm to push down bulk valence bands via the size effect. Our work paves the way to understand surface states and design bulkinsulating quantum devices in magnetic topological materials.

(2022) Physical review. B. 105, 15, 155106. Abstract
We employ polarizationresolved electronic Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory to study the primary and secondary order parameters, as well as their interplay, in the charge density wave (CDW) state of the kagome metal AV3Sb5. Previous xray diffraction data at 15 K established that the CDW order in CsV3Sb5 comprises of a 2×2×4 structure: one layer of inversestarofDavid and three consecutive layers of starofDavid pattern. We analyze the lattice distortions based on the 2×2×4 structure at 15 K, and find that the U1 lattice distortion is the primarylike (leading) order parameter while M+1 and L−2 distortions are secondarylike order parameters for vanadium displacements. This conclusion is confirmed by the calculation of bare susceptibility χ′0(q) that shows a broad peak at around qz=0.25 along the hexagonal Brillouin zone face central line (U line). We also identify several phonon modes emerging in the CDW state, which are lattice vibration modes related to V and Sb atoms as well as alkalimetal atoms. The detailed temperature evolution of these modes' frequencies, halfwidth at halfmaximums, and integrated intensities support a phase diagram with two successive structural phase transitions in CsV3Sb5: the first one with a primarylike order parameter appearing at TS=94K and the second isostructural one appearing at around T∗=70K. Furthermore, the T dependence of the integrated intensity for these modes shows two types of behavior below TS: the lowenergy modes show a plateaulike behavior below T∗ while the highenergy modes monotonically increase below TS. These two behaviors are captured by the Landau freeenergy model incorporating the interplay between the primarylike and the secondarylike order parameters via trilinear coupling. Especially, the sign of the trilinear term that couples order parameters with different wave vectors determines whether the primarylike and secondarylike order parameters cooperate or compete with each other, thus determining the shape of the T dependence of the intensities of Bragg peak in xray data and the amplitude modes in Raman data below TS. These results provide an accurate basis for studying the interplay between multiple CDW order parameters in kagome metal systems.

(2022) Physical Review Research. 4, 1, 013209. Abstract
The bulk photovoltaic effect (BPVE) converts light into a coherent dc current at zero bias, through what is commonly known as the shift current. This current has previously been attributed to the displacement of the electronic wave function center in real space, when the sample is excited by light. We reveal that materials like twisted bilayer graphene (TBG) with a flatband dispersion are uniquely suited to maximize the BPVE because they lead to an enhanced shift in the momentum space, unlike any previously known shift current mechanism. We identify properties of quantum geometry, which go beyond the quantum geometric tensor, and are unrelated to Berry charges, as the physical origin of the large BPVE we observe in TBG. Our calculations show that TBG with a band gap of several meV exhibits a giant BPVE in a range of 0.21 THz, which represents the strongest BPVE reported so far at this frequency in a twodimensional material and partially persists even a room temperature. Our paper provides a design principle for shift current generation, which applies to a broad range of twisted heterostructures with the potential to overcome the socalled "terahertz gap"in THz sensing.

(2022) Nature Communications. 13, 1, 1091. Abstract
Kagome metal TbMn6Sn6 was recently discovered to be a ferrimagnetic topological Dirac material by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy measurements. Here, we report the observation of large anomalous Nernst effect and anomalous thermal Hall effect in this compound. The anomalous transverse transport is consistent with the Berry curvature contribution from the massive Dirac gaps in the 3D momentum space as demonstrated by our firstprinciples calculations. Furthermore, the transverse thermoelectric transport exhibits asymmetry with respect to the applied magnetic field, i.e., an exchangebias behavior. Together, these features place TbMn6Sn6 as a promising system for the outstanding thermoelectric performance based on anomalous Nernst effect.

(2022) Advanced materials (Weinheim). 34, 13, 2106629. Abstract[All authors]
A critical overview of the theory of the chiralityinduced spin selectivity (CISS) effect, that is, phenomena in which the chirality of molecular species imparts significant spin selectivity to various electron processes, is provided. Based on discussions in a recently held workshop, and further work published since, the status of CISS effectsin electron transmission, electron transport, and chemical reactionsis reviewed. For each, a detailed discussion of the stateoftheart in theoretical understanding is provided and remaining challenges and research opportunities are identified.
2021

(2021) Nature Physics. 17, 12, p. 14131419 Abstract[All authors]
Topological superconductors are an essential component for topologically protected quantum computation and information processing. Although signatures of topological superconductivity have been reported in heterostructures, material realizations of intrinsic topological superconductors are rather rare. Here we use scanning tunnelling spectroscopy to study the transition metal dichalcogenide 4HbTaS2 that interleaves superconducting 1HTaS2 layers with strongly correlated 1TTaS2 layers, and find spectroscopic evidence for the existence of topological surface superconductivity. These include edge modes running along the 1Hlayer terminations as well as under the 1Tlayer terminations, where they separate between superconducting regions of distinct topological nature. We also observe signatures of zerobias states in vortex cores. All the boundary modes exhibit crystallographic anisotropy, which—together with a finite ingap density of states throughout the 1H layers—allude to the presence of a topological nodalpoint superconducting state. Our theoretical modelling attributes this phenomenology to an interorbital pairing channel that necessitates the combination of surface mirror symmetry breaking and strong interactions. It, thus, suggests a topological superconducting state realized in a natural compound.

(2021) Physical Review Applied. 16, 5, 054031. Abstract[All authors]
We use spin torque ferromagnetic resonance and ferromagneticresonancedriven spin pumping to detect spincharge interconversion at room temperature in heterostructure devices that interface an archetypal Dirac semimetal, Cd3As2, with a metallic ferromagnet, Ni0.80Fe0.20 (permalloy). Angleresolved photoemission directly reveals the Diracsemimetal nature of the samples prior to device fabrication and highresolution transmission electron microscopy is used to characterize the crystalline structure and the relevant heterointerfaces. We find that the spincharge interconversion efficiency in Cd3As2/permalloy heterostructures is comparable to that in heavy metals and that it is enhanced by the presence of an interfacial oxide. Spin torque ferromagnetic resonance measurements reveal an inplane spin polarization regardless of an oxidized or pristine interface. We discuss the underlying mechanisms for spincharge interconversion by comparing our results with first principles calculations and conclude that extrinsic mechanisms dominate the observed phenomena. Our results indicate a need for caution in interpretations of spintransport and spincharge conversion experiments in Cd3As2 devices that seek to invoke the role of topological Dirac and Fermi arc states.

(2021) Physical review. B. 104, 19, 195132. Abstract
Kagome lattice is a fertile platform for topological and intertwined electronic excitations. Recently, experimental evidence of an unconventional charge density wave (CDW) is observed in a Z2 kagome metal AV3Sb5 (A=K, Cs, Rb). This observation triggers wide interest in the interplay between frustrated crystal structure and Fermi surface instabilities. Here, we analyze the lattice effect and its impact on CDW in AV3Sb5. Based on published experimental data, we show that the 2×2×2 CDW breaks the sixfold rotational symmetry of the crystal due to the phase shift between kagome layers and can explain the twofold symmetric CDW peak intensity observed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The coupling between the lattice and electronic degrees of freedom yields a weak firstorder structural transition without continuous change of lattice dynamics. Our result emphasizes the fundamental role of lattice geometry in proper understanding of unconventional electronic orders in AV3Sb5.

(2021) Physical review. B. 104, 15, 155131. Abstract
The classic magnetic induction effect is usually considered in electric circuits or conductor coils. In this paper, we propose quantum induction effects induced by the Berry curvature in homogenous solids. Two different types of quantum inductions are identified in the higher order of a magnetic field. They are closely related to the magneticfieldinduced anomalous velocity proportional to the Berry curvature so that both quantum inductions become significantly enhanced near the Weyl points. Further, we propose an acmagneticfield measurement to detect quantum induction effects and distinguish them from classical induction.

(2021) Nature (London). 599, 7884, p. 222228 Abstract[All authors]
The transition metal kagome lattice materials host frustrated, correlated and topological quantum states of matter1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9. Recently, a new family of vanadiumbased kagome metals, AV3Sb5 (A = K, Rb or Cs), with topological band structures has been discovered10,11. These layered compounds are nonmagnetic and undergo charge density wave transitions before developing superconductivity at low temperatures11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19. Here we report the observation of unconventional superconductivity and a pair density wave (PDW) in CsV3Sb5 using scanning tunnelling microscope/spectroscopy and Josephson scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. We find that CsV3Sb5 exhibits a Vshaped pairing gap Δ ~ 0.5 meV and is a strongcoupling superconductor (2Δ/kBTc ~ 5) that coexists with 4a0 unidirectional and 2a0 × 2a0 charge order. Remarkably, we discover a 3Q PDW accompanied by bidirectional 4a0/3 spatial modulations of the superconducting gap, coherence peak and gap depth in the tunnelling conductance. We term this novel quantum state a roton PDW associated with an underlying vortex–antivortex lattice that can account for the observed conductance modulations. Probing the electronic states in the vortex halo in an applied magnetic field, in strong field that suppresses superconductivity and in zero field above Tc, reveals that the PDW is a primary state responsible for an emergent pseudogap and intertwined electronic order. Our findings show striking analogies and distinctions to the phenomenology of highTc cuprate superconductors, and provide groundwork for understanding the microscopic origin of correlated electronic states and superconductivity in vanadiumbased kagome metals.

(2021) Journal of physics. D, Applied physics. 54, 45, 454003. Abstract[All authors]
Co3Sn2S2 is a ferromagnetic semimetal with Weyl nodes in its band structure and a large anomalous Hall effect below its Curie temperature of 177 K. We present a detailed study of its Fermi surface and examine the relevance of the anomalous transverse Wiedemann Franz law to it. We studied Shubnikovde Haas oscillations along two orientations in single crystals with a mobility as high as $2.7\times10^3$ cm2 V−1 s−1 subject to a magnetic field as large as ∼60 T. The angle dependence of the frequencies is comparable with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and reveals two types of hole pockets (H1, H2) and two types of electron pockets (E1, E2). An additional unexpected frequency emerges at high magnetic field. We attribute it to magnetic breakdown between the hole pocket H2 and the electron pocket E2, since it is close to the sum of the E2 and H2 fundamental frequencies. By measuring the anomalous thermal and electrical Hall conductivities, we quantified the anomalous transverse Lorenz ratio, which is close to the Sommerfeld ratio ($L_0 = \frac{\pi^2}{3}\frac{k_B^2}{e^2}$) below 100 K and deviates downwards at higher temperatures. This finite temperature deviation from the anomalous Wiedemann–Franz law is a source of information on the distance between the sources and sinks of the Berry curvature and the chemical potential.

Higherorder, Quantum Inductions in Chiral Topological Materials(2021) arXiv.org. Abstract
The classic magnetic induction effect is usually considered in electric circuits or conductor coils. In this work, we propose quantum induction effects induced by the Berry curvature in homogenous solids. Two different types of quantum inductions are identified in the higher order of a magnetic field. They are closely related to the magneticfieldinduced anomalous velocityproportional to the Berry curvature so that both quantum inductions become significantly enhanced near Weyl points. Further, we propose an acmagneticfield measurement to detect quantum induction effects and distinguish them from classical induction.

(2021) Physical review letters. 127, 4, p. 046401046401 046401. Abstract
Kagome metals AV3Sb5 (A=K, Rb, and Cs) exhibit intriguing superconductivity below 0.9∼2.5 K, a charge density wave (CDW) transition around 80∼100 K, and Z2 topological surface states. The nature of the CDW phase and its relation to superconductivity remains elusive. In this work, we investigate the electronic and structural properties of CDW by firstprinciples calculations. We reveal an inverse Star of David deformation as the 2×2×2 CDW ground state of the kagome lattice. The kagome lattice shows softening breathingphonon modes, indicating the structural instability. However, electrons play an essential role in the CDW transition via Fermi surface nesting and van Hove singularity. The inverse Star of David structure agrees with recent experiments by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The CDW phase inherits the nontrivial Z2type topological band structure. Further, we find that the electronphonon coupling is too weak to account for the superconductivity Tc in all three materials. It implies the existence of unconventional pairing of these kagome metals. Our results provide essential knowledge toward understanding the superconductivity and topology in kagome metals.

(2021) Physical review. B. 104, 4, L041102. Abstract[All authors]
Despite the rapid progress in understanding the first intrinsic magnetic topological insulator MnBi 2 Te 4, its electronic structure remains a topic under debates. Here we perform a thorough spectroscopic investigation into the electronic structure of MnBi 2 Te 4 via laserbased angleresolved photoemission spectroscopy. Through quantitative analysis, we estimate an upper bound of 3 meV for the gap size of the topological surface state. Furthermore, our circular dichroism measurements reveal band chiralities for both the topological surface state and quasi2D bands, which can be well reproduced in a band hybridization model. A numerical simulation of energymomentum dispersions based on a fourband model with an additional step potential near the surface provides a promising explanation for the origin of the quasi2D bands. Our study represents a solid step forward in reconciling the existing controversies in the electronic structure of MnBi 2 Te 4, and provides an important framework to understand the electronic structures of other relevant topological materials MnBi 2 n Te 3 n + 1.

(2021) physica status solidi (b). 259, 5, 2100165. Abstract[All authors]
The noncentrosymmetric transitionmetal monopnictides NbP, TaP, NbAs, and TaAs are a family of Weyl semimetals in which pairs of protected linear crossings of spinresolved bands occur. These socalled Weyl nodes are characterized by integer topological charges of opposite sign associated with singular points of Berry curvature in momentum space. In such a system, anomalous magnetoelectric responses are predicted, which should only occur if the crossing points are close to the Fermi level and enclosed by Fermi surface pockets penetrated by an integer flux of Berry curvature, dubbed Weyl pockets. TaAs is shown to possess Weyl pockets, whereas TaP and NbP have trivial pockets enclosing zero net flux of Berry curvature. Herein, via measurements of the magnetic torque, resistivity, and magnetization, a comprehensive quantumoscillation study of NbAs is presented, the last member of this family where the precise shape and nature of the Fermi surface pockets is still unknown. Seven distinct frequency branches, three of which have not been observed before, are detected. A comparison with density functional theory calculations suggests that the two largest pockets are topologically trivial, whereas the low frequencies might stem from tiny Weyl pockets. The enclosed Weyl nodes are within a few meV of the Fermi energy.

(2021) Physical review. B. 103, 21, 214438. Abstract
In the anomalous Hall effect (AHE), the magnetization, electric field, and Hall current are presumed to be mutually vertical to each other. In this paper, we propose an unconventional AHE where the magnetization, electric field, and Hall current stay inside the same plane. Such an AHE is odd under time reversal and exists even when the magnetization is parallel to the electric field or Hall current, different from the planar Hall effect which is even under time reversal. Here, we term it parallel anomalous Hall effect (PAHE). We reveal that the PAHE exists when all the point group rotational and reflection symmetries are broken where the Berry curvature field is not necessarily parallel to the magnetization axis. We further demonstrate the PAHE in a ferrimagnetic Weyl semimetal FeCr2Te4.

(2021) Physical review. X. 11, 2, p. 021065 Abstract[All authors]
We report the discovery of a new threedimensional (3D) topological Dirac semimetal (TDS) material KZnBi, coexisting with a naturally formed superconducting state on the surface under ambient pressure. Using photoemission spectroscopy together with firstprinciples calculations, a 3D Dirac state with linear band dispersion is identified. The characteristic features of massless Dirac fermions are also confirmed by magnetotransport measurements, exhibiting an extremely small cyclotron mass of m∗=0.012 m0 and a high Fermi velocity of vF=1.04×106 m/s. Iterestingly, superconductivity occurs below 0.85 K on the (001) surface, while the bulk remains nonsuperconducting. The captured linear temperature dependence of the upper critical field suggests the possible nonswave character of this surface superconductivity. Our discovery serves a distinctive platform to study the interplay between 3D TDS and the superconductivity.

(2021) Physical review. B. 103, 20, L201110. Abstract[All authors]
Research on the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) has been lasting for a century to make clear the underlying physical mechanism. Generally, the AHE appears in magnetic materials, in which the extrinsic process related to scattering effects and intrinsic contribution connected with Berry curvature are crucial. Recently, AHE has been counterintuitively observed in nonmagnetic topological materials and attributed to the existence of Weyl points. However, the Weyl point scenario would lead to unsaturated AHE even in large magnetic fields and contradicts the saturation of AHE in several tesla (T) in experiments. In this work, we investigate the Hall effect of ZrTe5 and HfTe5 thin flakes in static ultrahigh magnetic fields up to 33 T. We find the AHE saturates to 55(70)Ω1cm1 for ZrTe5 (HfTe5) thin flakes above ~10T. Combining detailed magnetotransport experiments and Berry curvature calculations, we clarify that the splitting of massive Dirac bands without Weyl points can be responsible for AHE in nonmagnetic topological materials ZrTe5 and HfTe5 thin flakes. This model can identify our thin flake samples to be weak topological insulators and serve as a tool to probe the band structure topology in topological materials.

(2021) Nature Materials. 20, 5, p. 638644 Abstract
Topological aspects of the geometry of DNA and similar chiral molecules have received a lot of attention, but the topology of their electronic structure is less explored. Previous experiments revealed that DNA can efficiently filter spinpolarized electrons between metal contacts, a process called chiralinduced spin selectivity. However, the underlying correlation between chiral structure and electronic spin remains elusive. In this work, we reveal an orbital texture in the band structure, a topological characteristic induced by the chirality. We found that this orbital texture enables the chiral molecule to polarize the quantum orbital. This orbital polarization effect (OPE) induces spin polarization assisted by the spin–orbit interaction of a metal contact and leads to magnetoresistance and chiral separation. The orbital angular momentum of photoelectrons also plays an essential role in related photoemission experiments. Beyond chiralinduced spin selectivity, we predict that the orbital polarization effect could induce spinselective phenomena even in achiral but inversionbreaking materials.

(2021) Nature Reviews Physics. 3, p. 283297 Abstract
Discoveries of topological states and topological materials have reshaped our understanding of physics and materials over the past 15 years. Firstprinciples calculations have had an important role in bridging the theory of topology and experiments by predicting realistic topological materials. In this Review, we offer an overview of the firstprinciples methodology on topological quantum materials. First, we unify different concepts of topological states in the same band inversion scenario. We then discuss the topology using firstprinciples band structures and newly established topological materials databases. We stress challenges in characterizing symmetryindependent Weyl semimetals and calculating topological surface states, closing with an outlook on the exciting transport and optical phenomena induced by the topology.

(2021) Nature Communications. 12, p. 18 2049. Abstract[All authors]
While the anomalous Hall effect can manifest even without an external magnetic field, time reversal symmetry is nonetheless still broken by the internal magnetization of the sample. Recently, it has been shown that certain materials without an inversion center allow for a nonlinear type of anomalous Hall effect whilst retaining time reversal symmetry. The effect may arise from either Berry curvature or through various asymmetric scattering mechanisms. Here, we report the observation of an extremely large caxis nonlinear anomalous Hall effect in the noncentrosymmetric Td phase of MoTe2 and WTe2 without intrinsic magnetic order. We find that the effect is dominated by skewscattering at higher temperatures combined with another scattering process active at low temperatures. Application of higher bias yields an extremely large Hall ratio of E⊥/E = 2.47 and corresponding anomalous Hall conductivity of order 8 × 107 S/m.

(2021) Innovation. 2, 1, 100085. Abstract
Twisted bilayer graphene (TBG) exhibits fascinating correlationdriven phenomena like the superconductivity and Mott insulating state, with flat bands and a chiral lattice structure. We find by quantumtransport calculations that the chirality leads to a giant unidirectional magnetoresistance (UMR) in TBG, where the unidirectionality refers to the resistance change under the reversal of the direction of current or magnetic field. We point out that flat bands significantly enhance this effect. The UMR increases quickly upon reducing the twist angle, and reaches about 20% for an angle of 1.5° in a 10 T inplane magnetic field. We propose the band structure topology (asymmetry), which leads to a directionsensitive mean free path, as a useful way to anticipate the UMR effect. The UMR provides a probe for chirality and band flatness in the twisted bilayers.

(2021) Memorial Volume for. p. 353364 Abstract
The intrinsic orbital Hall effect (OHE), the orbital counterpart of the spin Hall effect, was predicted and studied theoretically for more than one decade, yet to be observed in experiments. Here we propose a strategy to convert the orbital current in OHE to the spin current via the spinorbit coupling from the contact. Furthermore, we find that OHE can induce large nonreciprocal magnetoresistance when employing the magnetic contact. Both the generated spin current and the orbital Hall magnetoresistance can be applied to probe the OHE in experiments and design orbitronic devices.


(2021) Physical Review B. 103, 4, 045106. Abstract
We carried out a comprehensive study of electronic transport, thermal, and thermodynamic properties in FeCr2Te4 single crystals. It exhibits badmetallic behavior and anomalous Hall effect (AHE) below a weakitinerant paramagnetictoferrimagnetic transition Tc∼123 K. The linear scaling between the anomalous Hall resistivity ρxy and the longitudinal resistivity ρxx implies that the AHE in FeCr2Te4 is most likely dominated by an extrinsic skewscattering mechanism rather than an intrinsic KL or an extrinsic sidejump mechanism, which is supported by our Berry phase calculations.
2020

(2020) International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, UP 2020. Abstract[All authors]
Using highharmonic generation spectroscopy, we reveal the underlying attosecond dynamics in multiband solidstate systems. We identify the mapping of spectral caustics into the highharmonic spectrum, and probe the structure of multiple unpopulated high conduction bands.

(2020) Physical Review Letters. 125, 22, 227401. Abstract
For semiconductors and insulators, it is commonly believed that ingap transitions into nonlocalized states are smoothly suppressed in the clean limit; i.e., at zero temperature, their contribution vanishes due to the unavailability of states. We present a novel type of subgap response which shows that this intuition does not generalize beyond linear response. Namely, we find that the dc current due to the bulk photovoltaic effect can be finite and mostly temperature independent in an allowed window of subgap transitions. We expect that a moderate range of excitation energies lies between the bulk energy gap and the mobility edge where this effect is observable. Using a simplified relaxation time model for the band broadening, we find the subgap dc current to be temperature independent for noninteracting systems but temperature dependent for strongly interacting systems. Thus, the subgap response may be used to distinguish whether a state is singleparticle localized or manybody localized.

(2020) 2D Materials. 7, 4, 045010. Abstract
In layered magnetic materials, the magnetic coupling between neighboring van der Waals layers is challenging to understand and anticipate, although the exchange interaction inside a layer can be well rationalized for example by the superexchange mechanism. In this work, we elucidate the interlayer exchange mechanism and propose an electroncounting rule to determine the interlayer magnetic order between van der Waals layers, based on counting the dorbital occupation (d^{n}, where n is the number of delectrons at the magnetic cation). With this rule, we classify magnetic monolayers into two groups, typeI (n

(2020) Physical Review Research. 2, 4, 043085. Abstract
The contribution of bulk and surface to the electrical resistance along crystallographic b and c axes as a function of crystal thickness gives evidence for temperatureindependent surface states in an antiferromagnetic narrowgap semiconductor CrSb2. Angleresolved photoemission spectroscopy shows a clear electronlike pocket in the ΓZ direction which is absent in the bulk band structure. Firstprinciples calculations also confirm the existence of metallic surface states inside the bulk gap. Whereas combined experimental probes point to enhanced surface conduction similar to topological insulators, surface states are trivial since CrSb2 exhibits no band inversion.

(2020) Angewandte Chemie  International Edition. 41, p. 1793817943 Abstract[All authors]
We exploit a highperforming resistivetype trace oxygen sensor based on 2D highmobility semiconducting Bi2O2Se nanoplates. Scanning tunneling microscopy combined with firstprinciple calculations confirms an amorphous Se atomic layer formed on the surface of 2D Bi2O2Se exposed to oxygen, which contributes to larger specific surface area and abundant active adsorption sites. Such 2D Bi2O2Se oxygen sensors have remarkable oxygenadsorption induced variations of carrier density/mobility, and exhibit an ultrahigh sensitivity featuring minimum detection limit of 0.25 ppm, longterm stability, high durativity, and widerange response to concentration up to 400 ppm at room temperature. 2D Bi2O2Se arrayed sensors integrated in parallel form are found to possess an oxygen detection minimum of sub0.25 ppm ascribed to an enhanced signaltonoise ratio. These advanced sensor characteristics involving ease integration show 2D Bi2O2Se is an ideal candidate for trace oxygen detection.

(2020) Physical Review B. 102, 8, 085126. Abstract[All authors]
Surface arcs (SAs) or Fermi arcs connecting pairs of bulk Weyl points with opposite chiralities are the signatures of Weyl semimetals in angleresolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies. The nontrivial topology of the bulk band structure guarantees the existence of these exotic Fermi arcs with connectivity that is strongly dependent on the surface. It has been theoretically proposed and experimentally confirmed that Fermi arcs at opposite surfaces can complete an unusual closed cyclotron orbit called a Weyl orbit, which leads to various intriguing transport properties. In this paper, a systematic ARPES study on opposite terminations (001) of typeII Weyl semimetal NbIrTe4 reveals different Fermi arc connections which result in a unique closed intersurface Fermi arc loop configurations (combining both projections of SAs) containing two pairs of Weyl points. In particular, the top surface ARPES data and corresponding ab initio calculation suggests that a topological Lifshitz transition occurs by tuning the chemical potential. SA rewiring on the top surface opens the intersurface arc loop at the Weyl node energy level into an open line, challenging the closeorbit description and leading to an unexplored scenario. Our results demonstrate the intrinsic alteration of Fermi arc connections and propose NbIrTe4 as a potential platform to examine Fermiarc related phenomenon.

(2020) Nature Communications. 11, 1, 3476. Abstract[All authors]
Weyl semimetals exhibit unusual surface states and anomalous transport phenomena. It is hard to manipulate the band structure topology of specific Weyl materials. Topological transport phenomena usually appear at very low temperatures, which sets challenges for applications. In this work, we demonstrate the band topology modification via a weak magnetic field in a ferromagnetic Weyl semimetal candidate, Co2MnAl, at room temperature. We observe a tunable, giant anomalous Hall effect (AHE) induced by the transition involving Weyl points and nodal rings. The AHE conductivity is as large as that of a 3D quantum AHE, with the Hall angle (Theta (H)) reaching a record value (tan Theta H=0.21) at the room temperature among magnetic conductors. Furthermore, we propose a material recipe to generate large AHE by gaping nodal rings without requiring Weyl points. Our work reveals an intrinsically magnetic platform to explore the interplay between magnetic dynamics and topological physics for developing spintronic devices.

(2020) Physical Review B. 102, 2, 024515. Abstract
We study a twodimensional heterostructure comprised of a monolayer of the magnetic insulator chromium triiodide (CrI3) on a superconducting lead (Pb) substrate. Through firstprinciples computation and a tightbinding model, we demonstrate that charge transfer from the Pb substrate dopes the CrI3 into an effective halfmetal, allowing for the onset of a gapless topological superconductivity phase via the proximity effect. This phase, in which there exists a superconducting gap only in part of the Fermi surface, is shown to occur generically in twodimensional (2D) halfmetalsuperconductor heterostructures which lack twofold inplane rotational symmetry. However, a sufficiently large proximityinduced pairing amplitude can bring such a system into a fully gapped topological superconducting (TSC) phase. As such, these results are expected to better define the optimal 2D component materials for future proposed TSC heterostructures.

(2020) Physical Review Research. 2, 3, 033100. Abstract
Nonlinear optical response is well studied in the context of semiconductors and has gained a renaissance in studies of topological materials in the recent decade. So far it mainly deals with nonmagnetic materials and it is believed to root in the Berry curvature of the material band structure. In this work we revisit the general formalism for the secondorder optical response and focus on the consequences of the timereversalsymmetry (T) breaking, by a diagrammatic approach. We have identified three physical mechanisms to generate a DC photocurrent, i.e., the Berry curvature, a term closely related to the quantum metric, and the diabatic motion. All three effects can be understood intuitively from the anomalous acceleration. The first two terms are respectively the antisymmetric and symmetric parts of the quantum geometric tensor. The last term is due to the dynamical antilocalization that appears from the phase accumulation between timereversed fermion loops. Additionally, we derive the semiclassical conductivity that includes both intra and interband effects. We find that T breaking can lead to a greatly enhanced nonlinear anomalous Hall effect that is beyond the contribution by the Berry curvature dipole.

(2020) Physical Review B. 102, 3, 035125. Abstract[All authors]
Unconventional quasiparticle excitations in condensed matter systems have become one of the most important research frontiers. Beyond twofold and fourfold degenerate Weyl and Dirac fermions, threefold, sixfold, and eightfold symmetry protected degeneracies have been predicted. However they remain challenging to realize in solid state materials. Here the charge density wave compound TaTe4 is proposed to hold eightfold fermionic excitation and Dirac point in energy bands. High quality TaTe4 single crystals are prepared, where the charge density wave is revealed by directly imaging the atomic structure and a pseudogap of about 45 meV on the surface. Shubnikovde Haas oscillations of TaTe4 are consistent with band structure calculation. Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy reveals atomic step edge states on the surface of TaTe4. This work uncovers that the charge density wave is able to induce new topological phases and sheds new light on the novel excitations in condensed matter materials.

(2020) Nature Electronics. 8, p. 473478 Abstract[All authors]
Siliconbased transistors are approaching their physical limits and thus new highmobility semiconductors are sought to replace silicon in the microelectronics industry. Both bulk materials (such as silicongermanium and IIIV semiconductors) and lowdimensional nanomaterials (such as onedimensional carbon nanotubes and twodimensional transition metal dichalcogenides) have been explored, but, unlike silicon, which uses silicon dioxide (SiO2) as its gate dielectric, these materials suffer from the absence of a highquality native oxide as a dielectric counterpart. This can lead to compatibility problems in practical devices. Here, we show that an atomically thin gate dielectric of bismuth selenite (Bi2SeO5) can be conformally formed via layerbylayer oxidization of an underlying highmobility twodimensional semiconductor, Bi2O2Se. Using this native oxide dielectric, highperformance Bi2O2Se fieldeffect transistors can be created, as well as inverter circuits that exhibit a large voltage gain (as high as 150). The high dielectric constant (similar to 21) of Bi2SeO5 allows its equivalent oxide thickness to be reduced to 0.9 nm while maintaining a gate leakage lower than thermal SiO2. The Bi2SeO5 can also be selectively etched away by a wet chemical method that leaves the mobility of the underlying Bi2O2Se semiconductor almost unchanged.

(2020) Physical Review B. 101, 24, 245146. Abstract
FeSe0.45Te0.55 (FeSeTe) has recently emerged as a promising candidate to host topological superconductivity, with a Dirac surface state and signatures of Majorana bound states in vortex cores. However, correlations strongly renormalize the bands compared to electronic structure calculations, and there is no evidence for the expected bulk band inversion. We present here a comprehensive angle resolved photoemission (ARPES) study of FeSeTe as a function of photon energies ranging from 15100 eV. We find that although the top of the bulk valence band shows essentially no k(z), dispersion, its normalized intensity exhibits a periodic variation with k(z). We show, using ARPES selection rules, that the intensity oscillation is a signature of band inversion indicating a change in the parity going from Gamma to Z. We also present a simple realistic tightbinding model which gives insight into ARPES observations. Thus we provide direct evidence for a topologically nontrivial bulk band structure that supports protected surface states.

(2020) Physical Review B. 101, 18, 184403. Abstract[All authors]
We demonstrate an anomalous spinorbit torque induced by the broken magnetic symmetry in the antiferromagnet IrMn. We study the magnetic structure of three phases of IrMn thin films using neutron diffraction technique. The magnetic mirror symmetry M' is broken laterally in both L1(0)IrMn and L1(2)IrMn3 but not gammaIrMn3. We observe an outofplane dampinglike spinorbit torque in both L1(0)IrMn/permalloy and L1(2)IrMn3/permalloy bilayers but not in gammaIrMn3/permalloy. This is consistent with both the symmetry analysis on the effects of a broken M' on spinorbit torque and the theoretical predictions of the spin Hall effect and the RashbaEdelstein effect. In addition, the measured spinorbit torque efficiencies are 0.61 +/ 0.01, 1.01 +/ 0.03, and 0.80 +/ 0.01 for the L1(0), L1(2), and gamma phases, respectively. Our work highlights the critical roles of the magnetic asymmetry in spinorbit torque generation.

(2020) Science Advances. 6, 17, aaz3522. Abstract[All authors]
The WiedemannFranz (WF) law has been tested in numerous solids, but the extent of its relevance to the anomalous transverse transport and the topological nature of the wave function, remains an open question. Here, we present a study of anomalous transverse response in the noncollinear antiferromagnet Mn3Ge extended from room temperature down to subkelvin temperature and find that the anomalous Lorenz ratio remains close to the Sommerfeld value up to 100 K but not above. The finitetemperature violation of the WF correlation is caused by a mismatch between the thermal and electrical summations of the Berry curvature and not by inelastic scattering. This interpretation is backed by our theoretical calculations, which reveals a competition between the temperature and the Berry curvature distribution. The data accuracy is supported by verifying the anomalous Bridgman relation. The anomalous Lorenz ratio is thus an extremely sensitive probe of the Berry spectrum of a solid.

(2020) Science Advances. 6, 10, eaaz0948. Abstract
The layered antiferromagnetic MnBi2Te4 films have been proposed to be an intrinsic quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) insulator with a large gap. It is crucial to open a magnetic gap of surface states. However, recent experiments have observed gapless surface states, indicating the absence of outofplane surface magnetism, and thus, the quantized Hall resistance can only be achieved at the magnetic field above 6 T. We propose to induce outofplane surface magnetism of MnBi2Te4 films via the magnetic proximity with magnetic insulator CrI3. A strong exchange bias of similar to 40 meV originates from the long Cre(g) orbital tails that hybridize strongly with Te p orbitals. By stabilizing surface magnetism, the QAH effect can be realized in the MnBi2Te4/CrI3 heterostructure. Moreover, the highChern number QAH state can be achieved by controlling external electric gates. Thus, the MnBi2Te4/CrI3 heterostructure provides a promising platform to realize the electrically tunable zerofield QAH effect.

(2020) Nature Materials. 6, p. 610616 Abstract[All authors]
Bi2TeI is identified as a dual topological insulator. It is a weak topological insulator with metallic states at the (010) surfaces and a topological crystalline insulator at the (001) surfaces.Dual topological materials are unique topological phases that host coexisting surface states of different topological nature on the same or on different material facets. Here, we show that Bi2TeI is a dual topological insulator. It exhibits band inversions at two time reversal symmetry points of the bulk band, which classify it as a weak topological insulator with metallic states on its 'side' surfaces. The mirror symmetry of the crystal structure concurrently classifies it as a topological crystalline insulator. We investigated Bi2TeI spectroscopically to show the existence of both twodimensional Dirac surface states, which are susceptible to mirror symmetry breaking, and onedimensional channels that reside along the step edges. Their mutual coexistence on the step edge, where both facets join, is facilitated by momentum and energy segregation. Our observation of a dual topological insulator should stimulate investigations of other dual topology classes with distinct surface manifestations coexisting at their boundaries.

(2020) National Science Review. 7, 3, p. 579587 Abstract[All authors]
The search for unconventional superconductivity in Weyl semimetal materials is currently an exciting pursuit, since such superconducting phases could potentially be topologically nontrivial and host exotic Majorana modes. The layered material TaIrTe4 is a newly predicted timereversal invariant type II Weyl semimetal with the minimum number of Weyl points. Here, we report the discovery of surface superconductivity in Weyl semimetal TaIrTe4. Our scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) visualizes Fermi arc surface states of TaIrTe4 that are consistent with the previous angleresolved photoemission spectroscopy results. By a systematic study based on STS at ultralow temperature, we observe uniform superconducting gaps on the sample surface. The superconductivity is further confirmed by electrical transport measurements at ultralow temperature, with an onset transition temperature (Tc) up to 1.54 K being observed. The normalized upper critical field h*(T/Tc) behavior and the stability of the superconductivity against the ferromagnet indicate that the discovered superconductivity is unconventional with the pwave pairing. The systematic STS, and thickness and angulardependent transport measurements reveal that the detected superconductivity is quasi1D and occurs in the surface states. The discovery of the surface superconductivity in TaIrTe4 provides a new novel platform to explore topological superconductivity and Majorana modes.

(2020) Physical Review Research. 2, 1, 013286. Abstract[All authors]
The discovery of topological Weyl semimetals has revealed opportunities to realize several extraordinary physical phenomena in condensed matter physics. Specifically, Weyl semimetals with strong spinorbit coupling, broken inversion symmetry, and novel spin textures are predicted to exhibit a large spin Hall effect that can efficiently convert the charge current to a spin current. Here, we report a direct experimental observation of large spin Hall and inverse spin Hall effects in the Weyl semimetal WTe2 at room temperature obeying the Onsager reciprocity relation. We demonstrate the detection of a pure spin current generated by the spin Hall phenomenon in WTe2 by making a van der Waals heterostructure with graphene, taking advantage of its long spin coherence length and spin transmission at the heterostructure interface. These experimental findings, well supported by ab initio calculations, show a large chargespin conversion efficiency in WTe2, which can pave the way for the utilization of spinorbitinduced phenomena in spintronic memory and logic circuit architectures.

(2020) Nature Photonics. 14, 3, p. 183187 Abstract[All authors]
Strongfielddriven electric currents in condensedmatter systems are opening new frontiers in petahertz electronics. In this regime, new challenges are arising as the roles of band structure and coherent electronhole dynamics have yet to be resolved. Here, by using highharmonic generation spectroscopy, we reveal the underlying attosecond dynamics that dictates the temporal evolution of carriers in multiband solidstate systems. We demonstrate that when the electronhole relative velocity approaches zero, enhanced constructive interference leads to the appearance of spectral caustics in the highharmonic generation spectrum. We introduce the role of the dynamical joint density of states and identify its mapping into the spectrum, which exhibits singularities at the spectral caustics. By studying these singularities, we probe the structure of multiple unpopulated high conduction bands.
2019

(2019) Physical Review X. 9, 4, 041061. Abstract[All authors]
Intrinsic anomalous Nernst effect, like its Hall counterpart, is generated by Berry curvature of electrons in solids. Little is known about its response to disorder. In contrast, the link between the amplitude of the ordinary Nernst coefficient and the meanfree path is extensively documented. Here, by studying Co3Sn2S2, a topological halfmetallic semimetal hosting sizable and recognizable ordinary and anomalous Nernst responses, we demonstrate an anticorrelation between the amplitudes of carrier mobility and the anomalous Sxy(A) (the ratio of transverse electric field to the longitudinal temperature gradient in the absence of magnetic field). We argue that the observation, paradoxically, establishes the intrinsic origin of the anomalous Nernst effect in this system. We conclude that various intrinsic offdiagonal coefficients are set by the way the Berry curvature is averaged on a grid involving the meanfree path, the Fermi wavelength, and the de Broglie thermal length.

(2019) Physical Review Letters. 123, 18, 186401. Abstract
In recent years, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have garnered great interest as topological materials. In particular, monolayers of centrosymmetric betaphase TMDs have been identified as 2D topological insulators (TIs), and bulk crystals of noncentrosymmetric gammaphase MoTe2 and WTe2 have been identified as typeII Weyl semimetals. However, angleresolved photoemission spectroscopy and STM probes of these semimetals have revealed huge, arclike surface states that overwhelm, and are sometimes mistaken for, the much smaller topological surface Fermi arcs of bulk typeII Weyl points. In this Letter, we calculate the bulk and surface electronic structure of both beta and gammaMoTe2. We find that betaMoTe2 is, in fact, a Z(4)nontrivial higherorder TI (HOTI) driven by double band inversion and exhibits the same surface features as gammaMoTe2 and gammaWTe2. We discover that these surface states are not topologically trivial, as previously characterized by the research that differentiated them from the Weyl Fermi arcs but, rather, are the characteristic split and gapped fourfold Dirac surface states of a HOTI. In betaMoTe2, this indicates that it would exhibit helical pairs of hinge states if it were bulk insulating, and in gammaMoTe2 and gammaWTe2, these surface states represent vestiges of HOTI phases without inversion symmetry that are nearby in parameter space. Using nested Wilson loops and firstprinciples calculations, we explicitly demonstrate that, when the Weyl points in gammaMoTe2 are annihilated, which may be accomplished by symmetrypreserving strain or lattice distortion, gammaMoTe2 becomes a nonsymmetryindicated, noncentrosymmetric HOTI. We also show that, when the effects of spinorbit coupling are neglected, betaMoTe2 is a nodalline semimetal with Z(2)nontrivial monopole nodal lines (MNLSM). This finding confirms that MNLSMs driven by double band inversion are the weakspinorbit coupling limit of HOTIs, implying that MNLSMs are higherorder topological semimetals with flatbandlike hinge states, which we find to originate from the corner modes of 2D "fragile" TIs.

(2019) Science. 365, 6459, p. 12861291 Abstract[All authors]
Bulksurface correspondence in Weyl semimetals ensures the formation of topological " Fermi arc" surface bands whose existence is guaranteed by bulk Weyl nodes. By investigating three distinct surface terminations of the ferromagnetic semimetal Co3Sn2S2, we verify spectroscopically its classification as a timereversal symmetrybroken Weyl semimetal. We show that the distinct surface potentials imposed by three different terminations modify the Fermiarc contour and Weyl node connectivity. On the tin (Sn) surface, we identify intraBrillouin zone Weyl node connectivity of Fermi arcs, whereas on cobalt (Co) termination, the connectivity is across adjacent Brillouin zones. On the sulfur (S) surface, Fermi arcs overlap with nontopological bulk and surface states. We thus resolve both topologically protected and nonprotected electronic properties of a Weyl semimetal.

(2019) Nature Communications. 10, 3783. Abstract
The bulk photovoltaic effect (BPVE) rectifies light into the dc current in a singlephase material and attracts the interest to design highefficiency solar cells beyond the pn junction paradigm. Because it is a hot electron effect, the BPVE surpasses the thermodynamic ShockleyQueisser limit to generate abovebandgap photovoltage. While the guiding principle for BPVE materials is to break the crystal centrosymmetry, here we propose a magnetic photogalvanic effect (MPGE) that introduces the magnetism as a key ingredient and induces a giant BPVE. The MPGE emerges from the magnetisminduced asymmetry of the carrier velocity in the band structure. We demonstrate the MPGE in a layered magnetic insulator CrI3, with much larger photoconductivity than any previously reported results. The photocurrent can be reversed and switched by controllable magnetic transitions. Our work paves a pathway to search for magnetic photovoltaic materials and to design switchable devices combining magnetic, electronic, and optical functionalities.

(2019) Nature Communications. 10, 3478. Abstract[All authors]
Surface Fermi arcs (SFAs), the unique open Fermisurfaces (FSs) discovered recently in topological Weyl semimetals (TWSs), are unlike closed FSs in conventional materials and can give rise to many exotic phenomena, such as anomalous SFAmediated quantum oscillations, chiral magnetic effects, threedimensional quantum Hall effect, nonlocal voltage generation and anomalous electromagnetic wave transmission. Here, by using insitu surface decoration, we demonstrate successful manipulation of the shape, size and even the connections of SFAs in a model TWS, NbAs, and observe their evolution that leads to an unusual topological Lifshitz transition not caused by the change of the carrier concentration. The phase transition teleports the SFAs between different parts of the surface Brillouin zone. Despite the dramatic surface evolution, the existence of SFAs is robust and each SFA remains tied to a pair of Weyl points of opposite chirality, as dictated by the bulk topology.

(2019) Nature Communications. 10, 1, 2475. Abstract[All authors]
Weyl and Dirac fermions have created much attention in condensed matter physics and materials science. Recently, several additional distinct types of fermions have been predicted. Here, we report ultrahigh electrical conductivity in MoP at low temperature, which has recently been established as a triple point fermion material. We show that the electrical resistivity is 6 n Omega cm at 2 K with a large mean free path of 11 microns. de Haasvan Alphen oscillations reveal spin splitting of the Fermi surfaces. In contrast to noble metals with similar conductivity and number of carriers, the magnetoresistance in MoP does not saturate up to 9 T at 2 K. Interestingly, the momentum relaxing time of the electrons is found to be more than 15 times larger than the quantum coherence time. This difference between the scattering scales shows that momentum conserving scattering dominates in MoP at low temperatures.

(2019) Science Advances. 5, 5, 6696. Abstract[All authors]
Spinorbit torque (SOT) offers promising approaches to developing energyefficient memory devices by electric switching of magnetization. Compared to other SOT materials, metallic antiferromagnet (AFM) potentially allows the control of SOT through its magnetic structure. Here, combining the results from neutron diffraction and spintorque ferromagnetic resonance experiments, we show that the magnetic structure of epitaxially grown L1(0)IrMn (a collinear AFM) is distinct from the widely presumed bulk one. It consists of twin domains, with the spin axes orienting toward [111] and [111], respectively. This unconventional magnetic structure is responsible for much larger SOT efficiencies up to 0.60 +/ 0.04, compared to 0.083 +/ 0.002 for the polycrystalline IrMn. Furthermore, we reveal that this magnetic structure induces a large isotropic bulk contribution and a comparable anisotropic interfacial contribution to the SOT efficiency. Our findings shed light on the critical roles of bulk and interfacial antiferromagnetism to SOT generated by metallic AFM.

(2019) Physical Review B. 99, 16, 165418. Abstract
In principle the stacking of different twodimensional (2D) materials allows the construction of 3D systems with entirely new electronic properties. Here we propose to realize topological crystalline insulators (TCI) protected by mirror symmetry in heterostructures consisting of graphene monolayers separated by twodimensional polar spacers. The polar spacers are arranged such that they can induce an alternating doping and/or spinorbit coupling in the adjacent graphene sheets. When spinorbit coupling dominates, the nontrivial phase arises due to the fact that each graphene sheet enters a quantum spinHall phase. Instead, when the graphene layers are electron and hole doped in an alternating fashion, a uniform magnetic field leads to the formation of quantum Hall phases with opposite Chern numbers. It thus has the remarkable property that unlike previously proposed and observed TCIs, the nontrivial topology is generated by an external timereversal breaking perturbation.

(2019) Science Advances. 5, 4, 8575. Abstract
The spin Hall effect (SHE) is the conversion of charge current to spin current, and nonmagnetic metals with large SHEs are extremely sought after for spintronic applications, but their rarity has stifled widespread use. Here, we predict and explain the large intrinsic SHE in betaW and the A15 family of superconductors: W3Ta, Ta3Sb, and Cr3Ir having spin Hall conductivities (SHCs) of 2250, 1400, and 1210 h/e (S/cm), respectively. Combining concepts from topological physics with the dependence of the SHE on the spin Berry curvature (SBC) of the electronic bands, we propose a simple strategy to rapidly search for materials with large intrinsic SHEs based on the following ideas: High symmetry combined with heavy atoms gives rise to multiple Diraclike crossings in the electronic structure; without sufficient symmetry protection, these crossings gap due to spinorbit coupling; and gapped crossings create large SBC.

(2019) Nano Letters. 19, 1, p. 197202 Abstract[All authors]
The airstable and highmobility twodimensional (2D) Bi2O2Se semiconductor has emerged as a promising alternative that is complementary to graphene, MoS2, and black phosphorus for nextgeneration digital applications. However, the roomtemperature residual charge carrier concentration of 2D Bi2O2Se nanoplates synthesized so far is as high as about 10(19)10(20) cm(3), which results in a poor electrostatic gate control and unsuitable threshold voltage, detrimental to the fabrication of 0 highperformance lowpower devices. Here, we first present a facile approach for synthesizing 2D Bi2O2Se single crystals with ultralow carrier concentration of similar to 10(16) cm(3) and high Hall mobility up to 410 cm(2) V1 s(1) simultaneously at room temperature. With optimized conditions, these highmobility and lowcarrierconcentration 2D Bi2O2Se nanoplates with domain sizes greater than 250 m and thicknesses down to 4 layers (similar to 2.5 nm) were readily grown by using Se and Bi2O3 powders as coevaporation sources in a dual heating zone chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system. Highquality 2D Bi2O2Se crystals were fabricated into highperformance and lowpower transistors, showing excellent current modulation of >10(6), robust current saturation, and low threshold voltage of 0.4 V. All these features suggest 2D Bi2O2Se as an alternative option for highperformance lowpower digital applications.
2018

(2018) Physical Review B. 98, 20, 205419. Abstract[All authors]
We have investigated the atomic and electronic structure of the (root 3x root 3)R30 degrees SnAu2/Au(111) surface alloy. Lowenergy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements show that the native herringbone reconstruction of bare Au(111) surface remains intact after formation of a longrange ordered (root 3x root 3)R30 degrees SnAu2/Au(111) surface alloy. Angleresolved photoemission and twophoton photoemission spectroscopy techniques reveal Rashbatype spinsplit bands in the occupied valence band with comparable momentum space splitting as observed for the Au(111) surface state, but with a holelike parabolic dispersion. Our experimental findings are compared with density functional theory (DFT) calculation that fully support our experimental findings Taking advantage of the good agreement between our DFT calculations and the experimental results, we are able to extract that the occupied SnAu hybrid band is of (s, d)orbital character, while the unoccupied SnAu hybrid bands are of (p, d)orbital character. Hence we can conclude that the Rashbatype spin splitting of the holelike SnAu hybrid surface state is caused by the significant mixing of Au d with Sn s states in conjunction with the strong atomic spinorbit coupling of Au. i.e., of the substrate.

(2018) 2D Materials. 5, 4, 044001. Abstract
We studied the nonlinear electric response in WTe_{2} and MoTe_{2} monolayers. When the inversion symmetry is breaking but the the timereversal symmetry is preserved, a secondorder Hall effect called the nonlinear anomalous Hall effect (NLAHE) emerges owing to the nonzero Berry curvature on the nonequilibrium Fermi surface. We reveal a strong NLAHE with a Hallvoltage that is quadratic with respect to the longitudinal current. The optimal current direction is normal to the mirror plane in these twodimensional (2D) materials. The NLAHE can be sensitively tuned by an outofplane electric field, which induces a transition from a topological insulator to a normal insulator. Crossing the critical transition point, the magnitude of the NLAHE increases, and its sign is reversed. Our work paves the way to discover exotic nonlinear phenomena in inversionsymmetrybreaking 2D materials.

(2018) 2D Materials. 5, 4, 044001. Abstract
We studied the nonlinear electric response in WTe2 and MoTe2 monolayers. When the inversion symmetry is breaking but the the timereversal symmetry is preserved, a secondorder Hall effect called the nonlinear anomalous Hall effect (NLAHE) emerges owing to the nonzero Berry curvature on the nonequilibrium Fermi surface. We reveal a strong NLAHE with a Hallvoltage that is quadratic with respect to the longitudinal current. The optimal current direction is normal to the mirror plane in these twodimensional (2D) materials. The NLAHE can be sensitively tuned by an outofplane electric field, which induces a transition from a topological insulator to a normal insulator. Crossing the critical transition point, the magnitude of the NLAHE increases, and its sign is reversed. Our work paves the way to discover exotic nonlinear phenomena in inversionsymmetrybreaking 2D materials.

(2018) Science Advances. 4, 9, 8355. Abstract[All authors]
Semiconductors are essential materials that affect our everyday life in the modern world. Twodimensional semiconductors with high mobility and moderate bandgap are particularly attractive today because of their potential application in fast, lowpower, and ultrasmall/thin electronic devices. We investigate the electronic structures of a new layered airstable oxide semiconductor, Bi2O2Se, with ultrahigh mobility (similar to 2.8 x 10(5) cm(2)/V.s at 2.0 K) and moderate bandgap (similar to 0.8 eV). Combining angleresolved photoemission spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy, we mapped out the complete band structures of Bi2O2Se with key parameters (for example, effective mass, Fermi velocity, and bandgap). The unusual spatial uniformity of the bandgap without undesired ingap states on the sample surface with up to similar to 50% defects makes Bi2O2Se an ideal semiconductor for future electronic applications. In addition, the structural compatibility between Bi2O2Se and interesting perovskite oxides (for example, cuprate hightransition temperature superconductors and commonly used substrate material SrTiO3) further makes heterostructures between Bi2O2Se and these oxides possible platforms for realizing novel physical phenomena, such as topological superconductivity, Josephson junction fieldeffect transistor, new superconducting optoelectronics, and novel lasers.

(2018) Physical Review B. 98, 4, 041404. Abstract
Spinresolved band structures of Lgap surface states on Ag(111) and Cu(111) are investigated by spin and angleresolved photoelectron spectroscopy (SARPES) with a vacuumultraviolet laser. The observed spin textures of the Ag(111) and Cu(111) surface states agree with that expected by the conventional Rashba effect. The Rashba parameter of the Ag(111) surface state is estimated quantitatively and is 80% of that of Cu(111). The surfacestate wave function is found to be predominantly of even mirror symmetry with negligible odd contribution by SARPES using a linearly polarized light. The results are consistent with our theoretical calculations for the orbitalresolved surface state.

(2018) New Journal of Physics. 20, 073028. Abstract
The spin Hall effect (SHE), which converts a charge current into a transverse spin current, has long been believed to be a phenomenon induced by spinorbit coupling. Here, we identify an alternative mechanism to realize the intrinsic SHE through a noncollinear magnetic structure that breaks the spin rotation symmetry. No spinorbit coupling is needed even when the scalar spin chirality vanishes, different from the case of the topological Hall effect and topological SHE reported previously. In known noncollinear antiferromagnetic compounds Mn3X (X = Ga, Ge, and Sn), for example, we indeed obtain large spin Hall conductivities based on ab initio calculations.

(2018) Applied Physics Letters. 112, 24, 243103. Abstract
Recent years have seen the rising importance of interface stacking in determining the electronic properties of multilayer materials stemming from the interlayer coupling; however, the stacking effects on exotic topological quantum orders largely remain to be explored. Here, we show by firstprinciples studies that bilayer Bi2Te3 host stacking is dependent on quantum spin Hall effects, with a topological phase transition induced by a change in the interlayer stacking pattern. The spinfiltered helical edge states are concomitantly switched on/off along with the changing interlayer stacking pattern. Since fewlayer Bi2Te3 has already been experimentally synthesized, the present finding opens an avenue for exploring the fundamental mechanisms and the practical implications of the quantum phenomena associated with band topology in this versatile and intriguing 2D material. Published by AIP Publishing.

(2018) Physical Review B. 97, 24, 241118. Abstract
Using firstprinciples calculations, we investigate the photogalvanic effect in the Weyl semimetal material TaAs. We find colossal photocurrents caused by the Weyl points in the band structure in a wide range of laser frequency. Our calculations reveal that the photocurrent is predominantly contributed by the threeband transition from the occupied Weyl band to the empty Weyl band via an intermediate band away from the Weyl cone, for excitations both by linearly and circularly polarized light. Therefore, it is essential to sum over all threeband transitions by considering a full set of Bloch bands (both Weyl bands and trivial bands) in the firstprinciples band structure while it does not suffice to only consider the twoband direct transition within a Weyl cone. The calculated photoconductivities are well consistent with recent experiment measurements. Our work provides a firstprinciples calculation on nonlinear optical phenomena of Weyl semimetals and provides a deeper understanding of the photogalvanic effects in complexed materials.

(2018) Advanced Materials. 30, 41, 1707628. Abstract
Exotic electronic states are realized in novel quantum materials. This field is revolutionized by the topological classification of materials. Such compounds necessarily host unique states on their boundaries. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies of these surface states have provided a wealth of spectroscopic characterization, with the successful cooperation of ab initio calculations. The method of quasiparticle interference imaging proves to be particularly useful for probing the dispersion relation of the surface bands. Herein, how a variety of additional fundamental electronic properties can be probed via this method is reviewed. It is demonstrated how quasiparticle interference measurements entail mesoscopic size quantization and the electronic phase coherence in semiconducting nanowires; helical spin protection and energymomentum fluctuations in a topological insulator; and the structure of the Bloch wave function and the relative insusceptibility of topological electronic states to surface potential in a topological Weyl semimetal.

(2018) Physical Review B. 95, 24, 241203. Abstract
Recently, an airstable layered semiconductor Bi2O2Se was discovered to exhibit an ultrahigh mobility in transistors fabricated with its thin layers. In this work, we explored the mechanism that induces the high mobility and distinguishes Bi2O2Se from other semiconductors. We found that the electron donor states lie above the lowest conduction band. Thus, electrons get spontaneously ionized from donor sites (e.g., Se vacancies) without involving the thermal activation, different from the donor ionization in conventional semiconductors. Consequently, the resistance decreases as reducing the temperature as observed in our measurement, which is similar to a metal but contrasts to a usual semiconductor. Furthermore, the electron conduction channels locate spatially away from ionized donor defects (Se vacancies) in different van der Waals layers. Such a spatial separation can strongly suppress the scattering caused by donor sites and subsequently increase the electron mobility, especially at the low temperature. We call this highmobility mechanism selfmodulation doping, i.e., the modulation doping spontaneously happening in a singlephase material without requiring a heterojunction. Our work paves a way to design highmobility semiconductors with layered materials.

(2018) New Journal of Physics. 20, 043008. Abstract
Threedimensional topological semimetals carry quasiparticle states that mimic massless relativistic Dirac fermions, elusive particles that have never been observed in nature. As they appear in the solid body, they are not bound to the usual symmetries of spacetime and thus new types of fermionic excitations that explicitly violate Lorentzinvariance have been proposed, the socalled typeII Dirac fermions. We investigate the electronic spectrum of the transitionmetal dichalcogenide PtSe2 by means of quantum oscillation measurements in fields up to 65 T. The observed Fermi surfaces agree well with the expectations from band structure calculations, that recently predicted a typeII Dirac node to occur in this material. A hole and an electronlike Fermi surface dominate the semimetal at the Fermi level. The quasiparticle mass is significantly enhanced over the bare band mass value, likely by phonon renormalization. Our work is consistent with the existence of typeII Dirac nodes in PtSe2, yet the Dirac node is too far below the Fermi level to support free Diracfermion excitations.
[All authors] 
(2018) Nature Physics. 14, 3, p. 242251 Abstract
The recent demonstrations of electrical manipulation and detection of antiferromagnetic spins have opened up a new chapter in the story of spintronics. Here, we review the emerging research field that is exploring the links between antiferromagnetic spintronics and topological structures in real and momentum space. Active topics include proposals to realize Majorana fermions in antiferromagnetic topological superconductors, to control topological protection and Dirac points by manipulating antiferromagnetic order parameters, and to exploit the anomalous and topological Hall effects of zeronetmoment antiferromagnets. We explain the basic concepts behind these proposals, and discuss potential applications of topological antiferromagnetic spintronics.

(2018) Science advances. 4, 2, eaar2317. Abstract[All authors]
Recent interest in topological semimetals has led to the proposal ofmany newtopological phases that can be realized in real materials. Next to Dirac and Weyl systems, these include more exotic phases based on manifold band degeneracies in the bulk electronic structure. The exotic states in topological semimetals are usually protected by some sort of crystal symmetry, and the introduction of magnetic order can influence these states by breaking timereversal symmetry. We show that we can realize a rich variety of different topological semimetal states in a single material, CeSbTe. This compound can exhibit different types ofmagnetic order that can be accessed easily by applying a small field. Therefore, it allows for tuning the electronic structure and can drive it through a manifold of topologically distinct phases, such as the first nonsymmorphic magnetic topological phase with an eightfold band crossing at a highsymmetry point. Our experimental results are backed by a full magnetic group theory analysis and ab initio calculations. This discovery introduces a realistic and promising platform for studying the interplay of magnetism and topology. We also show that we can generally expand the numbers of space groups that allow for highorder band degeneracies by introducing antiferromagnetic order.

(2018) Physical Review B. 97, 7, 075429. Abstract
We introduce a class of twodimensional (2D) materials that possess coexisting ferroelectric and topologically insulating orders. Such ferroelectric topological insulators (FETIs) occur in noncentrosymmetric atomic layer structures with strong spinorbit coupling (SOC). We showcase a prototype 2D FETI in an atomically thin bismuth layer functionalized by CH2OH, which exhibits a large ferroelectric polarization that is switchable by a ligand molecule rotation mechanism and a strong SOC that drives a band inversion leading to the topologically insulating state. An external electric field that switches the ferroelectric polarization also tunes the spin texture in the underlying atomic lattice. Moreover, the functionalized bismuth layer exhibits an additional quantum order driven by the valley splitting at the K and K' points in the Brillouin zone stemming from the symmetry breaking and strong SOC in the system, resulting in a remarkable state of matter with the simultaneous presence of the quantum spin Hall and quantum valley Hall effect. These phenomena are predicted to exist in other similarly constructed 2D FETIs, thereby offering a unique quantum material platform for discovering novel physics and exploring innovative applications.

(2018) Physical Review B. 97, 4, 041101. Abstract
Noncentrosymmetric metals are anticipated to exhibit a dc photocurrent in the nonlinear optical response caused by the Berry curvature dipole in momentum space. Weyl semimetals (WSMs) are expected to be excellent candidates for observing these nonlinear effects because they carry a large Berry curvature concentrated in small regions, i.e., near the Weyl points. We have implemented the semiclassical Berry curvature dipole formalism into an ab initio scheme and investigated the secondorder nonlinear response for two representative groups of materials: the TaAsfamily typeI WSMs and the MoTe2family typeII WSMs. Both types of WSMs exhibited a Berry curvature dipole in which typeII Weyl points are usually superior to the typeI WSM because of the strong tilt. Corresponding nonlinear susceptibilities in several materials promise a nonlinear Hall effect in the dc field limit, which is within the experimentally detectable range.

(2018) Advances in Physics. 3, 1, 1414631. Abstract
The realization of Dirac and Weyl physics in solids has made topological materials one of the main focuses of condensed matter physics. Recently, the topic of topological nodal line semimetals, materials in which Dirac or Weyllike crossings along special lines in momentum space create either a closed ring or line of degeneracies, rather than discrete points, has become a hot topic in topological quantum matter. Here, we review the experimentally confirmed and theoretically predicted topological nodal line semimetals, focusing in particular on the symmetry protection mechanisms of the nodal lines in various materials. Three different mechanisms: a combination of inversion and timereversal symmetry, mirror reflection symmetry, and nonsymmorphic symmetry and their robustness under the effect of spin orbit coupling are discussed. We also present a new Weyl nodal line material, the Tesquare net compound KCu. Finally, we discuss potential experimental signatures for observing exotic properties of nodal line physics.[GRAPHICS].
2017

(2017) Nat Commun. 8, 1642. Abstract[All authors]
The peculiar band structure of semimetals exhibiting Dirac and Weyl crossings can lead to spectacular electronic properties such as large mobilities accompanied by extremely high magnetoresistance. In particular, two closely neighboring Weyl points of the same chirality are protected from annihilation by structural distortions or defects, thereby significantly reducing the scattering probability between them. Here we present the electronic properties of the transition metal diphosphides, WP2 and MoP2, which are typeII Weyl semimetals with robust Weyl points by transport, angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy and first principles calculations. Our single crystals of WP2 display an extremely low residual lowtemperature resistivity of 3 n Omega cm accompanied by an enormous and highly anisotropic magnetoresistance above 200 million % at 63 T and 2.5 K. We observe a large suppression of charge carrier backscattering in WP2 from transport measurements. These properties are likely a consequence of the novel Weyl fermions expressed in this compound.

(2017) Phys. Rev. Lett.. 119, 18, Abstract
Noncollinear antiferromagnets, such as Mn3 Sn and Mn3 Ir, were recently shown to be analogous to ferromagnets in that they have a large anomalous Hall effect. Here we show that these materials are similar to ferromagnets in another aspect: the charge current in these materials is spin polarized. In addition, we show that the same mechanism that leads to the spinpolarized current also leads to a transverse spin current, which has a distinct symmetry and origin from the conventional spin Hall effect. We illustrate the existence of the spinpolarized current and the transverse spin current by performing ab initio microscopic calculations and by analyzing the symmetry. We discuss possible applications of these novel spin currents, such as an antiferromagnetic metallic or tunneling junction.

(2017) Physical Review B. 96, 16, 165113. Abstract
A Weyl semimetal discovered recently, NbP, exhibits two groups of Weyl points with one group lying inside the k(z) = 0 plane and the other group staying away from this plane. All Weyl points have been assumed to be type I, in which the Fermi surface (Fs) shrinks into a point as the Fermi energy crosses the Weyl point. In this paper, we have revealed that the second group of Weyl points are actually type II, which are found to be touching points between the electron and hole pockets in the FS. Corresponding Weyl cones are strongly tilted along a line approximately 17 degrees off the k(z) axis in the k(x)  k(z) (or k(y)  k(z)) plane, violating the Lorentz symmetry but still giving rise to Fermi arcs on the surface. Therefore, NbP exhibits both typeI (k(z) = 0 plane) and typeII (k(z) not equal 0 plane) Weyl points.

(2017) Physical Review B. 96, 16, 165143. Abstract
Topological insulators represent unusual topological quantum states, typically with gapped bulk band structure but gapless surface Dirac fermions protected by timereversal symmetry. Recently, a distinct kind of topological insulator resulting from nonsymmorphic crystalline symmetry was proposed in the KHgX (X=As, Sb, Bi) compounds. Unlike regular topological crystalline insulators, the nonsymmorphic glidereflection symmetry in KHgX guarantees the appearance of an exotic surface fermion with hourglass shape dispersion (where two pairs of branches switch their partners) residing on its (010) side surface, contrasting to the usual twodimensional Dirac fermion form. Here, by using highresolution angleresolved photoemission spectroscopy, we systematically investigate the electronic structures of KHgSb on both (001) and (010) surfaces and reveal the unique ingap surface states on the (010) surface with delicate dispersion consistent with the "hourglass Fermion" recently proposed. Our experiment strongly supports that KHgSb is a nonsymmorphic topological crystalline insulator with hourglass fermions, which serves as an important step to the discovery of unique topological quantum materials and exotic fermions protected by nonsymmorphic crystalline symmetry.
[All authors] 
(2017) Physical review letters. 119, 13, 136401. Abstract
We predict the existence of triple point fermions in the band structure of several halfHeusler topological insulators by ab initio calculations and the Kane model. We find that many halfHeusler compounds exhibit multiple triple points along four independent C3 axes, through which the doubly degenerate conduction bands and the nondegenerate valence band cross each other linearly nearby the Fermi energy. When projected from the bulk to the (111) surface, most of these triple points are located far away from the surface Γ point, as distinct from previously reported triple point fermion candidates. These isolated triple points give rise to Fermi arcs on the surface, that can be readily detected by photoemission spectroscopy or scanning tunneling spectroscopy.

(2017) Nature. 547, 7663, p. 324327 Abstract[All authors]
The conservation laws, such as those of charge, energy and momentum, have a central role in physics. In some special cases, classical conservation laws are broken at the quantum level by quantum fluctuations, in which case the theory is said to have quantum anomalies. One of the most prominent examples is the chiral anomaly, which involves massless chiral fermions. These particles have their spin, or internal angular momentum, aligned either parallel or antiparallel with their linear momentum, labelled as left and right chirality, respectively. In three spatial dimensions, the chiral anomaly is the breakdown (as a result of externally applied parallel electric and magnetic fields) of the classical conservation law that dictates that the number of massless fermions of each chirality are separately conserved. The current that measures the difference between left and righthanded particles is called the axial current and is not conserved at the quantum level. In addition, an underlying curved spacetime provides a distinct contribution to a chiral imbalance, an effect known as the mixed axialgravitational anomaly, but this anomaly has yet to be confirmed experimentally. However, the presence of a mixed gaugegravitational anomaly has recently been tied to thermoelectrical transport in a magnetic field, even in flat spacetime, suggesting that such types of mixed anomaly could be experimentally probed in condensed matter systems known as Weyl semimetals. Here, using a temperature gradient, we observe experimentally a positive magnetothermoelectric conductance in the Weyl semimetal niobium phosphide (NbP) for collinear temperature gradients and magnetic fields that vanishes in the ultraquantum limit, when only a single Landau level is occupied. This observation is consistent with the presence of a mixed axialgravitational anomaly, providing clear evidence for a theoretical concept that has so far eluded experimental detection.

(2017) Nature Nanotechnology. 12, 6, p. 530534 Abstract[All authors]
Highmobility semiconducting ultrathin films form the basis of modern electronics, and may lead to the scalable fabrication of highly performing devices. Because the ultrathin limit cannot be reached for traditional semiconductors, identifying new twodimensional materials with both high carrier mobility and a large electronic bandgap is a pivotal goal of fundamental research^{19}. However, airstable ultrathin semiconducting materials with superior performances remain elusive at present^{10}. Here, we report ultrathin films of nonencapsulated layered Bi_{2}O_{2} Se, grown by chemical vapour deposition, which demonstrate excellent air stability and highmobility semiconducting behaviour. We observe bandgap values of ∼0.8 eV, which are strongly dependent on the film thickness due to quantumconfinement effects. An ultrahigh Hall mobility value of >20,000 cm^{2} V^{1} s^{1} is measured in asgrown Bi_{2}O_{2} Se nanoflakes at low temperatures. This value is comparable to what is observed in graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition^{11} and at the LaAlO_{3}SrTiO_{3} interface^{12}, making the detection of Shubnikovde Haas quantum oscillations possible. Topgated fieldeffect transistors based on Bi_{2}O_{2} Se crystals down to the bilayer limit exhibit high Hall mobility values (up to 450 cm^{2} V ^{1} s^{1}), large current on/off ratios (>10^{6}) and nearideal subthreshold swing values (∼65 mV dec^{1}) at room temperature. Our results make Bi_{2}O_{2} Se a promising candidate for future highspeed and lowpower electronic applications.

(2017) Physical review letters. 118, 23, 236403. Abstract
The Ta181 quadrupole resonance [nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR)] technique is utilized to investigate the microscopic magnetic properties of the Weyl semimetal TaP. We find three zerofield NQR signals associated with the transition between the quadrupole split levels for Ta with I=7/2 nuclear spin. A quadrupole coupling constant, νQ=19.250 MHz, and an asymmetric parameter of the electric field gradient, η=0.423, are extracted, in good agreement with band structure calculations. In order to examine the magnetic excitations, the temperature dependence of the spinlattice relaxation rate (1/T1T) is measured for the f2 line (±5/2↔±3/2 transition). We find that there exist two regimes with quite different relaxation processes. Above T∗≈30 K, a pronounced (1/T1T) T2 behavior is found, which is attributed to the magnetic excitations at the Weyl nodes with temperaturedependent orbital hyperfine coupling. Below T∗, the relaxation is mainly governed by a Korringa process with 1/T1T=const, accompanied by an additional T1/2type dependence to fit our experimental data. We show that Ta NQR is a novel probe for the bulk Weyl fermions and their excitations.
[All authors] 
(2017) Physical Review B. 95, 23, 235104. Abstract
We have found Dirac nodal lines (DNLs) in the band structures of metallic rutile oxides IrO2, OsO2, and RuO2 and have revealed a large spin Hall conductivity contributed by these nodal lines, which explains a strong spin Hall effect (SHE) of IrO2 discovered recently. Two types of DNLs exist. The first type forms DNL networks that extend in the whole Brillouin zone and appears only in the absence of spinorbit coupling (SOC), which induces surface states on the boundary. Because of SOCinduced band anticrossing, a large intrinsic SHE can be realized in these compounds. The second type appears at the Brillouin zone edges and is stable against SOC because of the protection of nonsymmorphic symmetry. Besides reporting these DNL materials, our work reveals the general relationship between DNLs and the SHE, indicating a way to apply Dirac nodal materials for spintronics.

(2017) Journal of the American Chemical Society. 139, 24, p. 81068109 Abstract
We report superconductive iridium pnictides Ba_{x}Ir_{4}X_{12} (X = As and P) with a filled skutterudite structure, demonstrating that Ba filling dramatically alters their electronic properties and induces a nonmetaltometal transition with increasing the Ba content x. The highest superconducting transition temperatures are 4.8 and 5.6 K observed for Ba_{x}Ir_{4}As_{12} and Ba_{x}Ir_{4}P_{12}, respectively. The superconductivity in Ba_{x}Ir_{4}X_{12} can be classified into the BardeenCooperSchrieffer type with intermediate coupling.

(2017) Physical Review B. 95, 23, 235158. Abstract
In this work, we construct a generalized Kane model with a coupling term between itinerant electron spins and local magnetic moments of antiferromagnetic ordering in order to describe the lowenergy effective physics in a large family of antiferromagnetic halfHeusler materials. The topological properties of this generalized Kane model are studied and a large variety of topological phases, including the Dirac semimetal phase, Weyl semimetal phase, nodal line semimetal phase, typeB triple point semimetal phase, topological mirror (or glide) insulating phase, and antiferromagnetic topological insulating phase, are identified in different parameter regions of our effective models. In particular, we find that the system is always driven into the antiferromagnetic topological insulator phase once a bulk band gap is open, irrespective of the magnetic moment direction, thus providing a robust realization of antiferromagentic topological insulators. Furthermore, we discuss the possible realization of these topological phases in realistic antiferromagnetic halfHeusler materials. Our effective model provides a basis for the future study of physical phenomena in this class of materials.

(2017) Advanced Materials. 29, 19, 1606202. Abstract[All authors]
The search for highly efficient and lowcost catalysts is one of the main driving forces in catalytic chemistry. Current strategies for the catalyst design focus on increasing the number and activity of local catalytic sites, such as the edge sites of molybdenum disulfides in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Here, the study proposes and demonstrates a different principle that goes beyond local site optimization by utilizing topological electronic states to spur catalytic activity. For HER, excellent catalysts have been found among the transitionmetal monopnictides—NbP, TaP, NbAs, and TaAs—which are recently discovered to be topological Weyl semimetals. Here the study shows that the combination of robust topological surface states and large room temperature carrier mobility, both of which originate from bulk Dirac bands of the Weyl semimetal, is a recipe for high activity HER catalysts. This approach has the potential to go beyond graphene based composite photocatalysts where graphene simply provides a high mobility medium without any active catalytic sites that have been found in these topological materials. Thus, the work provides a guiding principle for the discovery of novel catalysts from the emerging field of topological materials.

(2017) Physical Review X. 7, 2, 021016. Abstract
The higher the energy of a particle is above equilibrium, the faster it relaxes because of the growing phase space of available electronic states it can interact with. In the relaxation process, phase coherence is lost, thus limiting highenergy quantum control and manipulation. In onedimensional systems, high relaxation rates are expected to destabilize electronic quasiparticles. Here, we show that the decoherence induced by relaxation of hot electrons in onedimensional semiconducting nanowires evolves nonmonotonically with energy such that above a certain threshold hot electrons regain stability with increasing energy. We directly observe this phenomenon by visualizing, for the first time, the interference patterns of the quasionedimensional electrons using scanning tunneling microscopy. We visualize the phase coherence length of the onedimensional electrons, as well as their phase coherence time, captured by crystallographic FabryPèrot resonators. A remarkable agreement with a theoretical model reveals that the nonmonotonic behavior is driven by the unique manner in which onedimensional hot electrons interact with the cold electrons occupying the Fermi sea. This newly discovered relaxation profile suggests a highenergy regime for operating quantum applications that necessitate extended coherence or long thermalization times, and may stabilize electronic quasiparticles in one dimension.
[All authors] 
(2017) Advanced Materials. 29, 18, 1605965. Abstract[All authors]
A pressureinduced topological quantum phase transition has been theoretically predicted for the semiconductor bismuth tellurohalide BiTeI with giant Rashba spin splitting. In this work, evolution of the electrical transport properties in BiTeI and BiTeBr is investigated under high pressure. The pressuredependent resistivity in a wide temperature range passes through a minimum at around 3 GPa, indicating the predicted topological quantum phase transition in BiTeI. Superconductivity is observed in both BiTeI and BiTeBr, while resistivity at higher temperatures still exhibits semiconducting behavior. Theoretical calculations suggest that superconductivity may develop from the multivalley semiconductor phase. The superconducting transition temperature, T_{c}, increases with applied pressure and reaches a maximum value of 5.2 K at 23.5 GPa for BiTeI (4.8 K at 31.7 GPa for BiTeBr), followed by a slow decrease. The results demonstrate that BiTeX (X = I, Br) compounds with nontrivial topology of electronic states display new ground states upon compression.

(2017) ChemistryA European Journal. 23, 19, p. 46804686 Abstract
Quasi twodimensional (2D) oxidebased honeycomb lattices have attracted great attention for displaying specific electronic instabilities, which give rise to unconventional bonding patterns and unexpected magnetic exchange couplings. The synthesis of AgRuO_{3}, another representative exhibiting unique structural properties, is reported here. The stacking sequence of the honeycomb layers (Ru_{2}O_{6}) differs from analogous precedents; in particular, the intercalating silver atoms are shifted from the middle of the interspaces and cap the void octahedral sites of the (□Ru_{2}O_{6}) slabs from both sides. This way, charge neutral, giant 2D “molecules” of Ag/Ru_{2}O_{6}/Ag result; a feature that significantly enhances the overall 2D character of AgRuO_{3}. Measurements of magnetization have revealed extremely strong magnetic exchange coupling to be present, surviving to a temperature as high as 673 K, which is the temperature of thermal decomposition. No indication for longrange magnetic order has, however, been observed. Theoretical analyses confirm the pronounced 2D character of the electronic system, and in particular reveal the interhoneycomb layer coupling J_{c} to be distinctly weak.

(2017) Physical Review B. 95, 12, 121109. Abstract
The class of topological semimetals comprises a large pool of compounds. Together they provide a wide platform to realize exotic quasiparticles, for example, Dirac, nodalline Dirac, and Weyl fermions. In this Rapid Communication, we report the Berry phase, Fermisurface topology, and anisotropic magnetoresistance of HfSiS which has recently been predicted to be a nodalline semimetal. This compound contains a large carrier density, higher than most of the known semimetals. Massive amplitudes of de Haasvan Alphen and Shubnikovde Haas oscillations up to 20 K in 7 T assist us in witnessing a nontrivial πBerry phase, which is a consequence of topological Diractype dispersion of bands originating from the hybridization of px+py and dx2y2 orbitals of squarenet plane of Si and Hf atoms, respectively. Furthermore, we establish the threedimensional Fermi surface which consists of very asymmetric water caltroplike electrons and barley seedlike hole pockets which account for the anisotropic magnetoresistance in HfSiS.

(2017) Scientific Reports. 7, 43394. Abstract[All authors]
NbP is a recently realized Weyl semimetal (WSM), hosting Weyl points through which conduction and valence bands cross linearly in the bulk and exotic Fermi arcs appear. The most intriguing transport phenomenon of a WSM is the chiral anomalyinduced negative magnetoresistance (NMR) in parallel electric and magnetic fields. In intrinsic NbP the Weyl points lie far from the Fermi energy, making chiral magnetotransport elusive. Here, we use Gadoping to relocate the Fermi energy in NbP sufficiently close to the W2 Weyl points, for which the different Fermi surfaces are verified by resultant quantum oscillations. Consequently, we observe a NMR for parallel electric and magnetic fields, which is considered as a signature of the chiral anomaly in condensedmatter physics. The NMR survives up to room temperature, making NbP a versatile material platform for the development of Weyltronic applications.

(2017) Physical Review B. 95, 7, 075128. Abstract
We have carried out a comprehensive study of the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect and spin Hall effect of several chiral antiferromagnetic compounds Mn3X (X = Ge, Sn, Ga, Ir, Rh and Pt) by ab initio band structure and Berry phase calculations. These studies reveal large and anisotropic values of both the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect and spin Hall effect. The Mn3X materials exhibit a noncollinear antiferromagnetic order which, to avoid geometrical frustration, forms planes of Mn moments that are arranged in a Kagometype lattice. With respect to these Kagome planes, we find that both the anomalous Hall conductivity (AHC) and the spin Hall conductivity (SHC) are quite anisotropic for any of these materials. Based on our calculations, we propose how to maximize AHC and SHC for different materials. The band structures and corresponding electron filling, that we show are essential to determine the AHC and SHC, are compared for these different compounds. We point out that Mn3Ga shows a large SHC of about 600 (/e)(Ωcm)1. Our work provides insights into the realization of strong anomalous Hall effects and spin Hall effects in chiral antiferromagnetic materials.

(2017) Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics. 8, p. 337354 Abstract
Topological insulators and topological semimetals are both new classes of quantum materials, which are characterized by surface states induced by the topology of the bulk band structure. Topological Dirac or Weyl semimetals show linear dispersion around nodes, termed the Dirac or Weyl points, as the threedimensional analog of graphene. We review the basic concepts and compare these topological states of matter from the materials perspective with a special focus on Weyl semimetals. The TaAs family is the ideal materials class to introduce the signatures of Weyl points in a pedagogical way, from Fermi arcs to the chiral magnetotransport properties, followed by hunting for the typeII Weyl semimetals in WTe2, MoTe2, and related compounds. Many materials are members of big families, and topological properties can be tuned. As one example, we introduce the multifunctional topological materials, Heusler compounds, in which both topological insulators and magnetic Weyl semimetals can be found. Instead of a comprehensive review, this article is expected to serve as a helpful introduction and summary by taking a snapshot of the quickly expanding field.

(2017) New Journal of Physics. 19, 1, 015008. Abstract
Recent experiments revealed that Mn_{3}Sn and Mn_{3}Ge exhibit a strong anomalous Hall effect at room temperature, provoking us to explore their electronic structures for topological properties. By ab initio band structure calculations, we have observed the existence of multiple Weyl points in the bulk and corresponding Fermi arcs on the surface, predicting antiferromagnetic Weyl semimetals in Mn_{3}Ge and Mn_{3}Sn. Here the chiral antiferromagnetism in the Kagometype lattice structure is essential to determine the positions and numbers of Weyl points. Our work further reveals a new guiding principle to search for magnetic Weyl semimetals among materials that exhibit a strong anomalous Hall effect.

(2017) Physical Review B. 95, 3, 035114. Abstract[All authors]
We present a quasiparticle interference study of clean and Mn surfacedoped TaAs, a prototypical Weyl semimetal, to test the screening properties as well as the stability of Fermi arcs against Coulomb and magnetic scattering. Contrary to topological insulators, the impurities are effectively screened in Weyl semimetals. The adatoms significantly enhance the strength of the signal such that theoretical predictions on the potential impact of Fermi arcs can be unambiguously scrutinized. Our analysis reveals the existence of three extremely short, previously unknown scattering vectors. Comparison with theory traces them back to scattering events between large parallel segments of spinsplit trivial states, strongly limiting their coherence. In sharp contrast to previous work [R. Batabyal, Sci. Adv. 2, e1600709 (2016)2375254810.1126/sciadv.1600709], where similar but weaker subtle modulations were interpreted as evidence of quasiparticle interference originating from Femi arcs, we can safely exclude this being the case. Overall, our results indicate that intra as well as interFermi arc scattering are strongly suppressed and may explain why  in spite of their complex multiband structure  transport measurements show signatures of topological states in Weyl monopnictides.

(2017) Physical Review B. 95, 3, 035102. Abstract
Topological Dirac semimetals (DSMs) exhibit nodal points through which energy bands disperse linearly in threedimensional (3D) momentum space, a 3D analog of graphene. The first experimentally confirmed DSMs with a pair of Dirac points (DPs), Na3Bi and Cd3As2, show topological surface Fermi arc states and exotic magnetotransport properties, boosting the interest in the search for stable and nontoxic DSM materials. Based on densityfunctional theory and dynamical meanfield theory calculations, we predict a family of palladium and platinum oxides to be robust 3D DSMs with three pairs of Dirac points that are well separated from bulk bands. The Fermi arcs at the surface display a Lifshitz transition upon a continuous change of the chemical potential. Corresponding oxides are already available as highquality single crystals, an excellent precondition for the verification of our predictions by photoemission and magnetotransport experiments, extending DSMs to the versatile family of transitionmetal oxides.

(2017) Nature Communications. 8, 13942. Abstract[All authors]
The rareearth monopnictide LaBi exhibits exotic magnetotransport properties, including an extremely large and anisotropic magnetoresistance. Experimental evidence for topological surface states is still missing although band inversions have been postulated to induce a topological phase in LaBi. In this work, we have revealed the existence of surface states of LaBi through the observation of three Dirac cones: two coexist at the corners and one appears at the centre of the Brillouin zone, by employing angleresolved photoemission spectroscopy in conjunction with ab initio calculations. The odd number of surface Dirac cones is a direct consequence of the odd number of band inversions in the bulk band structure, thereby proving that LaBi is a topological, compensated semimetal, which is equivalent to a timereversal invariant topological insulator. Our findings provide insight into the topological surface states of LaBi's semimetallicity and related magnetotransport properties.
2016

(2016) Physical Review B. 94, 24, 245135. Abstract
In this work, we studied timereversalbreaking topological phases as a result of the interplay between antiferromagnetism and inverted band structures in antiferromagnetic double perovskite transitionmetal Sr2FeOsO6 films. By combining the firstprinciples calculations and analytical models, we demonstrate that the quantum anomalous Hall phase and chiral topological superconducting phase can be realized in this system. We find that to achieve timereversalbreaking topological phases in antiferromagnetic materials, it is essential to break the combined symmetry of time reversal and inversion, which generally exists in antiferromagnetic structures. As a result, we can utilize an external electric gate voltage to induce the phase transition between topological phases and trivial phases, thus providing an electrically controllable topological platform for future transport experiments.

(2016) New Journal of Physics. 18, 11, 113038. Abstract
We investigated the electronic structure of the layered transitionmetal dichalcogenides VS_{2} and VSe_{2} by firstprinciples calculations. Both compounds exhibit metalinsulator transitions when crossing over from the bulk to the twodimensional monolayer. In the monolayer limit, the Coulomb interaction is enhanced due to the dimension reduction, leading to the insulating state. Moreover, these monolayers are found to be ferromagnetic, supplying excellent candidates for ferromagnetic insulators. When increasing the thickness, the fewlayer structure turns metallic and presents large anomalous Hall conductivity (∼100 S/cm), which oscillates with respect to the thickness due to the size effect. Our findings presents profound materials, such as ferromagnetic insulators and anomalous Hall ferromagnets, for the spintronic application.


(2016) Physical review letters. 117, 14, 146401. Abstract
Tantalum arsenide is a member of the noncentrosymmetric monopnictides, which are putative Weyl semimetals. In these materials, threedimensional chiral massless quasiparticles, the socalled Weyl fermions, are predicted to induce novel quantum mechanical phenomena, such as the chiral anomaly and topological surface states. However, their chirality is only well defined if the Fermi level is close enough to the Weyl points that separate Fermi surface pockets of opposite chirality exist. In this Letter, we present the bulk Fermi surface topology of high quality single crystals of TaAs, as determined by angledependent Shubnikovde Haas and de Haasvan Alphen measurements combined with ab initio bandstructure calculations. Quantum oscillations originating from three different types of Fermi surface pockets were found in magnetization, magnetic torque, and magnetoresistance measurements performed in magnetic fields up to 14 T and temperatures down to 1.8 K. Of these Fermi pockets, two are pairs of topologically nontrivial electron pockets around the Weyl points and one is a trivial hole pocket. Unlike the other members of the noncentrosymmetric monopnictides, TaAs is the first Weyl semimetal candidate with the Fermi energy sufficiently close to both types of Weyl points to generate chiral quasiparticles at the Fermi surface.

(2016) Scientific Reports. 6, 33859. Abstract[All authors]
Weyl semimetals are often considered the 3Danalogon of graphene or topological insulators. The evaluation of quantum oscillations in these systems remains challenging because there are often multiple conduction bands. We observe de Haasvan Alphen oscillations with several frequencies in a single crystal of the Weyl semimetal niobium phosphide. For each fundamental crystal axis, we can fit the raw data to a superposition of sinusoidal functions, which enables us to calculate the characteristic parameters of all individual bulk conduction bands using Fourier transform with an analysis of the temperature and magnetic fielddependent oscillation amplitude decay. Our experimental results indicate that the band structure consists of Dirac bands with low cyclotron mass, a nontrivial Berry phase and parabolic bands with a higher effective mass and trivial Berry phase.

(2016) 2D Materials. 3, 3, 035022. Abstract
Wereport the existence of the quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE) in monolayers of transitionmetal carbidesMC(M=Zr, Hf). Under ambient conditions, the ZrC monolayer exhibits QSHE with an energy gap of 54 meV, in which topological helical edge states exist. Enhanced d_{xy}d_{xy} interaction induces band inversion, resulting in nontrivial topological features. By applying inplane strain, the HfC monolayer can be tuned from a trivial insulator to a quantum spin Hall insulator with an energy gap of 170 meV, three times that of the ZrC monolayer. The strong stability of MC monolayers provides a new platform for QSHE and spintronic applications.

(2016) Science advances. 2, 9, e1600759. Abstract
There has been considerable interest in spinorbit torques for the purpose of manipulating the magnetization of ferromagnetic elements for spintronic technologies. Spinorbit torques are derived from spin currents created from charge currents in materials with significant spinorbit coupling that propagate into an adjacent ferromagnetic material. A key challenge is to identify materials that exhibit large spin Hall angles, that is, efficient chargetospin current conversion. Using spin torque ferromagnetic resonance, we report the observation of a giant spin Hall angle θ^{eff}_{SH} of up to ~0.35 in (001)oriented singlecrystalline antiferromagnetic IrMn_{3} thin films, coupled to ferromagnetic permalloy layers, and a θ^{eff}_{SH} that is about three times smaller in (111)oriented films. For (001)oriented samples, we show that the magnitude of θ^{eff}_{SH} can be significantly changed by manipulating the populations of various antiferromagnetic domains through perpendicular field annealing. We identify two distinct mechanisms that contribute to θ^{eff}_{SH}: the first mechanism, which is facetindependent, arises from conventional bulk spindependent scattering within the IrMn_{3} layer, and the second intrinsic mechanism is derived from the unconventional antiferromagnetic structure of IrMn_{3}. Using ab initio calculations, we show that the triangular magnetic structure of IrMn_{3} gives rise to a substantial intrinsic spin Hall conductivity that is much larger for the (001) than for the (111) orientation, consistent with our experimental findings.

(2016) Physical review letters. 117, 14, 146403. Abstract
Since their discovery, topological insulators are expected to be ideal spintronic materials owing to the spin currents carried by surface states with spinmomentum locking. However, the bulk doping problem remains an obstacle that hinders such an application. In this work, we predict that a newly discovered family of topological materials, the Weyl semimetals, exhibits a large intrinsic spin Hall effect that can be utilized to generate and detect spin currents. Our ab initio calculations reveal a large spin Hall conductivity in the TaAs family of Weyl materials. Considering the low charge conductivity of semimetals, Weyl semimetals are believed to present a larger spin Hall angle (the ratio of the spin Hall conductivity over the charge conductivity) than that of conventional spin Hall systems such as the 4d and 5d transition metals. The spin Hall effect originates intrinsically from the bulk band structure of Weyl semimetals, which exhibit a large Berry curvature and spinorbit coupling, so the bulk carrier problem in the topological insulators is naturally avoided. Our work not only paves the way for employing Weyl semimetals in spintronics, but also proposes a new guideline for searching for the spin Hall effect in various topological materials.

(2016) 2D Materials. 3, 3, 035018. Abstract
Quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulates exist in special twodimensional (2D) semiconductors, possessing the quantized spinHall conductance that are topologically protected from backscattering. Based on the firstprinciples calculations, we predict a novel family of QSH insulators in 2D tantalum carbide halides TaCX (X=Cl, Br, and I) with unique rectangular lattice and large direct energy gaps. The mechanism for 2DQSHeffect originates from an intrinsic dd band inversion in the process of chemical bonding. Further, stain and intrinsic electric field can be used to tune the electronic structure and enhance the energy gap. TaCX nanoribbon, which has the singleDiraccone edge states crossing the bulk band gap, exhibits a linear dispersion with a high Fermi velocity comparable to that of graphene. These 2D materials with considerable nontrivial gaps promise great application potential in the new generation of dissipationless electronics and spintronics.

(2016) Nature Communications. 7, 12924. Abstract[All authors]
Topological quantum materials represent a new class of matter with both exotic physical phenomena and novel application potentials. Many Heusler compounds, which exhibit rich emergent properties such as unusual magnetism, superconductivity and heavy fermion behaviour, have been predicted to host nontrivial topological electronic structures. The coexistence of topological order and other unusual properties makes Heusler materials ideal platform to search for new topological quantum phases (such as quantum anomalous Hall insulator and topological superconductor). By carrying out angleresolved photoemission spectroscopy and ab initio calculations on rareearth halfHeusler compounds LnPtBi (Ln=Lu, Y), we directly observe the unusual topological surface states on these materials, establishing them as first members with nontrivial topological electronic structure in this class of materials. Moreover, as LnPtBi compounds are noncentrosymmetric superconductors, our discovery further highlights them as promising candidates of topological superconductors.

(2016) Science advances. 2, 8, e1600709. Abstract
Fermi arcs are the surface manifestation of the topological nature of Weyl semimetals, enforced by the bulkboundary correspondence with the bulk Weyl nodes. The surface of tantalum arsenide, similar to that of other members of the Weyl semimetal class, hosts nontopological bands that obscure the exploration of this correspondence. We use the spatial structure of the Fermi arc wave function, probed by scanning tunneling microscopy, as a spectroscopic tool to distinguish and characterize the surface Fermi arc bands. We find that, as opposed to nontopological states, the Fermi arc wave function is weakly affected by the surface potential: it spreads rather uniformly within the unit cell and penetrates deeper into the bulk. Fermi arcs reside predominantly on tantalum sites, from which the topological bulk bands are derived. Furthermore, we identify a correspondence between the Fermi arc dispersion and the energy and momentum of the bulk Weyl nodes that classify this material as topological. We obtain these results by introducing an analysis based on the role the Bloch wave function has in shaping quantum electronic interference patterns. It thus carries broader applicability to the study of other electronic systems and other physical processes.

(2016) Physical Review B. 94, 5, 054517. Abstract[All authors]
The discovery of superconductivity in hafnium pentatelluride HfTe5 under high pressure is reported. Two structural phase transitions and metallization with superconductivity developing at around 5 GPa are observed. A maximal critical temperature of 4.8 K is attained at a pressure of 20 GPa, and superconductivity persists up to the maximum pressure of the study (42 GPa). The combination of electrical transport and crystal structure measurements as well as theoretical electronic structure calculations enables the construction of a phase diagram of HfTe5 under high pressure.

(2016) Physical Review B. 93, 24, 245148. Abstract
The electronic and magnetic properties of distorted monoclinic double perovskite Sr2CeIrO6 were examined based on both experiments and firstprinciples density functional theory calculations. From the calculations we conclude that lowspinstate Ir4+ (5d5) forms a rare weakly antiferromagnetic (AFM) orbital ordered state derived from alternating occupation of slightly mixed egπ symmetry states in the presence of spinorbit coupling (SOC). This orbital ordering is caused due to the competition between the comparable strength of JahnTeller structural distortion and SOC. We found both electronelectron correlation and SOC are required to drive the experimentally observed AFMinsulating ground state. Electronic structure investigation suggests that this material belongs to the intermediateSOC regime, by comparing our results with the other existing iridates. This single active site double perovskite provides a rare platform with a prototype geometrically frustrated fcc lattice where among the different degrees of freedom (i.e., spin, orbital, and lattice) SOC, structural distortion, and Coulomb correlation energy scales compete and interact with each other.

(2016) Physical Review B. 93, 24, 241106. Abstract
Topological insulators are characterized by an inverted band structure in the bulk and metallic surface states on the surface. In LaBi, a semimetal with a band inversion equivalent to a topological insulator, we observe surfacestatelike behavior in the magnetoresistance. The electrons responsible for this pseudotwodimensional transport, however, originate from the bulk states rather topological surface states, which is witnessed by the angledependent quantum oscillations of the magnetoresistance and ab initio calculations. As a consequence, the magnetoresistance exhibits strong anisotropy with large amplitude (∼105%).

(2016) Physical Review B. 93, 20, Abstract
We report on the pressure evolution of the Fermi surface topology of the Weyl semimetal NbP, probed by Shubnikovde Haas oscillations in the magnetoresistance combined with ab initio calculations of the band structure. Although we observe a drastic effect on the amplitudes of the quantum oscillations, the frequencies only exhibit a weak pressure dependence up to 2.8 GPa. The pressureinduced variations in the oscillation frequencies are consistent with our bandstructure calculations. Furthermore, we can relate the changes in the amplitudes to small modifications in the shape of the Fermi surface. Our findings show evidence of the stability of the electronic band structure of NbP and demonstrate the power of combining quantumoscillation studies and bandstructure calculations to investigate pressure effects on the Fermi surface topology in Weyl semimetals.

(2016) Physical Review B. 93, 20, 205303. Abstract
Starting from the threedimensional Dirac semimetal in Na3Bi, we found a topological insulator (TI) in the known compound of NaBaBi by extra pressure. The TI of NaBaBi can be viewed as the distorted version of Na3Bi with breaking inversion symmetry. When the exchangecorrelation energy is considered in generalized gradient approximation (GGA), the TI phase has a band inversion between the Bip and Nas orbitals. Since GGA often overestimates the band inversion, we also performed more accurate calculations by using hybrid functional theory (HSE). From HSE calculations we found that NaBaBi exhibits as a trivial insulator at zero pressure, and the other TI phase with pd inversion can be achieved by pressure. Though both of two TI phases have Diracconetype surface states, they have opposite spin textures. In the upper cone, a lefthanded spin texture exists for the sp inverted phase (similar to a common TI, e.g., Bi2Se3), whereas a righthanded spin texture appears for the pd inverted phase. This work presents a prototype model of a TI exhibits righthanded spin texture.

(2016) Nature Communications. 7, 11615. Abstract[All authors]
Weyl semimetals (WSMs) are topological quantum states wherein the electronic bands disperse linearly around pairs of nodes with fixed chirality, the Weyl points. In WSMs, nonorthogonal electric and magnetic fields induce an exotic phenomenon known as the chiral anomaly, resulting in an unconventional negative longitudinal magnetoresistance, the chiralmagnetic effect. However, it remains an open question to which extent this effect survives when chirality is not welldefined. Here, we establish the detailed Fermisurface topology of the recently identified WSM TaP via combined angleresolved quantumoscillation spectra and bandstructure calculations. The Fermi surface forms bananashaped electron and hole pockets surrounding pairs of Weyl points. Although this means that chirality is illdefined in TaP, we observe a large negative longitudinal magnetoresistance. We show that the magnetoresistance can be affected by a magnetic fieldinduced inhomogeneous current distribution inside the sample.

(2016) Physical Review B. 93, 16, 161116. Abstract
Using firstprinciples densityfunctional theory, we have investigated the electronic and magnetic properties of recently synthesized and characterized 5d doubleperovskites Sr2BOsO6(B=Y,In,Sc). The electronic structure calculations show that in all compounds the Os5+ (5d3) site is the only magnetically active one, whereas Y3+, In3+, and Sc3+ remain in nonmagnetic states with Sc/Y and In featuring d0 and d10 electronic configurations, respectively. Our studies reveal the important role of closedshell (d10) versus openshell (d0) electronic configurations of the nonmagnetic sites in determining the overall magnetic exchange interactions. Although the magnetic Os5+ (5d3) site is the same in all compounds, the magnetic superexchange interactions mediated by nonmagnetic Y/In/Sc species are strongest for Sr2ScOsO6, weakest for Sr2InOsO6, and intermediate in the case of the Y (d0) due to different energy overlaps between Os5d and Y/In/Scd states. This explains the experimentally observed substantial differences in the magnetic transition temperatures of these materials, despite an identical magnetic site and underlying magnetic ground state. Furthermore, shortrange OsOs exchange interactions are more prominent than longrange OsOs interactions in these compounds, which contrasts with the behavior of other 3d5d double perovskites.

(2016) Science advances. 2, 4, e1501870. Abstract[All authors]
It is well established that the anomalous Hall effect displayed by a ferromagnet scales with its magnetization. Therefore, an antiferromagnet that has no net magnetization should exhibit no anomalous Hall effect. We show that the noncolinear triangular antiferromagnet Mn_{3}Ge exhibits a large anomalous Hall effect comparable to that of ferromagnetic metals; the magnitude of the anomalous conductivity is ∼500 (ohmcm) ^{1} at 2 K and ∼50 (ohmcm) ^{1} at room temperature. The angular dependence of the anomalous Hall effect measurements confirms that the small residual inplanemagneticmoment has no role in the observed effect except to control the chirality of the spin triangular structure. Our theoretical calculations demonstrate that the large anomalous Hall effect inMn_{3}Ge originates from a nonvanishing Berry curvature that arises from the chiral spin structure, and that also results in a large spin Hall effect of 1100 (h/e) (ohmcm) ^{1}, comparable to that of platinum. The present results pave the way toward the realization of room temperature antiferromagnetic spintronics and spin Hall effectbased data storage devices.

(2016) Physical Review B. 93, 12, 121105. Abstract[All authors]
The Weyl semimetal NbP was found to exhibit topological Fermi arcs and exotic magnetotransport properties. Here, we report on magnetic quantumoscillation measurements on NbP and construct the threedimensional Fermi surface with the help of bandstructure calculations. We reveal a pair of spinorbitsplit electron pockets at the Fermi energy and a similar pair of hole pockets, all of which are strongly anisotropic. The Weyl points that are located in the kz≈π/c plane are found to exist 5 meV above the Fermi energy. Therefore, we predict that the chiral anomaly effect can be realized in NbP by electron doping to drive the Fermi energy to the Weyl points.

(2016) Nature Communications. 7, 11038. Abstract[All authors]
Transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted research interest over the last few decades due to their interesting structural chemistry, unusual electronic properties, rich intercalation chemistry and wide spectrum of potential applications. Despite the fact that the majority of related research focuses on semiconducting transitionmetal dichalcogenides (for example, MoS_{2}), recently discovered unexpected properties of WTe_{2} are provoking strong interest in semimetallic transition metal dichalcogenides featuring large magnetoresistance, pressuredriven superconductivity and Weyl semimetal states. We investigate the sister compound of WTe_{2}, MoTe_{2}, predicted to be a Weyl semimetal and a quantum spin Hall insulator in bulk and monolayer form, respectively. We find that bulk MoTe_{2} exhibits superconductivity with a transition temperature of 0.10 K. Application of external pressure dramatically enhances the transition temperature up to maximum value of 8.2 K at 11.7 GPa. The observed domeshaped superconductivity phase diagram provides insights into the interplay between superconductivity and topological physics.

(2016) Nature Materials. 15, 1, p. 2731 Abstract[All authors]
Topological Weyl semimetals (TWSs) represent a novel state of topological quantum matter which not only possesses Weyl fermions (massless chiral particles that can be viewed as magnetic monopoles in momentum space) in the bulk and unique Fermi arcs generated by topological surface states, but also exhibits appealing physical properties such as extremely large magnetoresistance and ultrahigh carrier mobility. Here, by performing angleresolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) on NbP and TaP, we directly observed their band structures with characteristic Fermi arcs of TWSs. Furthermore, by systematically investigating NbP, TaP and TaAs from the same transition metal monopnictide family, we discovered their Fermiology evolution with spinorbit coupling (SOC) strength. Our experimental findings not only reveal the mechanism to realize and finetune the electronic structures of TWSs, but also provide a rich material base for exploring many exotic physical phenomena (for example, chiral magnetic effects, negative magnetoresistance, and the quantum anomalous Hall effect) and novel future applications.

(2016) Physical Review B. 93, 4, 041108. Abstract
We study the interaction effect in a threedimensional Dirac semimetal and find that two competing orders, chargedensitywave orders and nematic orders, can be induced to gap the Dirac points. Applying a magnetic field can further induce an instability towards forming these ordered phases. The chargedensitywave phase is similar to that of a Weyl semimetal, while the nematic phase is unique for Dirac semimetals. Gapless zero modes are found in the vortex core formed by nematic order parameters, indicating the topological nature of nematic phases. The nematic phase can be observed experimentally using scanning tunneling microscopy.
2015

(2015) Nano Letters. 15, 12, p. 78677872 Abstract
Topological insulators (TIs) are promising for achieving dissipationless transport devices due to the robust gapless states inside the insulating bulk gap. However, currently realized twodimensional (2D) TIs, quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulators, suffer from ultrahigh vacuum and extremely low temperature. Thus, seeking for desirable QSH insulators with high feasibility of experimental preparation and large nontrivial gap is of great importance for wide applications in spintronics. On the basis of the firstprinciples calculations, we predict a novel family of 2D QSH insulators in transitionmetal halide MX (M = Zr, Hf; X = Cl, Br, and I) monolayers, especially, which is the first case based on transitionmetal halidebased QSH insulators. MX family has the large nontrivial gaps of 0.120.4 eV, comparable with bismuth (111) bilayer (0.2 eV), stanene (0.3 eV), and larger than ZrTe_{5} (0.1 eV) monolayers and graphenebased sandwiched heterstructures (3070 meV). Their corresponding 3D bulk materials are weak topological insulators from stacking QSH layers, and some of bulk compounds have already been synthesized in experiment. The mechanism for 2D QSH effect in this system originates from a novel dd band inversion, significantly different from conventional band inversion between sp, pp, or dp orbitals. The realization of pure layered MX monolayers may be prepared by exfoliation from their 3D bulk phases, thus holding great promise for nanoscale device applications and stimulating further efforts on transition metalbased QSH materials.

(2015) ACS Catalysis. 5, 12, p. 70637067 Abstract
Exotic and robust metallic surface states of topological insulators (TIs) have been expected to provide a promising platform for novel surface chemistry and catalysis. However, it is still not fully known how TIs affect the activity of catalysts. In this work, we study the effects of topological surface states (TSSs) on the activity of transition metal clusters (Au, Ag, Cu, Pt, and Pd), which are supported on a TI Bi_{2}Se_{3} substrate. It was found the adsorption energy of oxygen on the supported catalysts can be always enhanced due to the TSSs. However, it does not necessarily mean an increase of the activity in catalytic oxidation reaction. Rather, the enhanced adsorption behavior in the presence of TSSs exhibits dual effects, determined by the intrinsic reactivity of these catalysts with oxygen. For the Au case, the activity of catalytic oxidation can be improved because the TSSs can enhance the dissociation rate of dioxygen. In contrast, a negative effect is found for the Pt and Pd clusters since the TSSs will suppress the desorption process of reaction products. We also found that the effect of TSSs on the activity of hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is quite similar (i.e., the metals with original weak reactivity can gain a positive effect from TSSs). The present work can pave a way for more rational design and selection of catalysts when using TIs as substrates.

(2015) Physical Review B. 92, 16, 165421. Abstract
We studied the squareoctagonal lattice of the transition metal dichalcogenide MX2 (with M=Mo, W; X=S, Se, and Te), as an isomer of the normal hexagonal compound of MX2. By bandstructure calculations, we observe the graphenelike Dirac band structure in a rectangular lattice of MX2 with nonsymmorphic space group symmetry. Two bands with van Hove singularity points cross each at the Fermi energy, leading to two Dirac cones that locate at opposite momenta. Spinorbit coupling can open a gap at these Dirac points, inside which gapless topological edge states exists as the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect, the 2D topological insulator.

(2015) Physical Review B. 92, 16, 161107. Abstract
We investigate the orthorhombic phase (Td) of the layered transitionmetal dichalcogenide MoTe2 as a Weyl semimetal candidate. MoTe2 exhibits four pairs of Weyl points lying slightly above (∼6meV) the Fermi energy in the bulk band structure. Different from its cousin WTe2, which was recently predicted to be a typeII Weyl semimetal, the spacing between each pair of Weyl points is found to be as large as 4% of the reciprocal lattice in MoTe2 (six times larger than that of WTe2). When projected onto the surface, the Weyl points are connected by Fermi arcs, which can be easily accessed by angleresolved photoemission spectroscopy due to the large Weyl point separation. In addition, we show that the correlation effect or strain can drive MoTe2 from a typeII to a typeI Weyl semimetal.

(2015) Physical Review B. 92, 11, 115428. Abstract
Very recently the topological Weyl semimetal (WSM) state was predicted in the noncentrosymmetric compounds NbP, NbAs, TaP, and TaAs and soon led to photoemission and transport experiments to verify the presumed topological properties such as Fermi arcs (unclosed Fermi surfaces) and the chiral anomaly. In this work we have performed fully ab initio calculations of the surface band structures of these four WSM materials and revealed the Fermi arcs with spinmomentumlocked spin texture. On the (001) polar surface, the shape of the Fermi surface depends sensitively on the surface terminations (cations or anions), although they exhibit the same topology with arcs. The anion (P or As) terminated surfaces are found to fit recent photoemission measurements well. Such surface potential dependence indicates that the shape of the Fermi surface can be sensitively manipulated by depositing guest species (such as K atoms), as we demonstrate. On the polar surface of a WSM without inversion symmetry, Rashbatype spin polarization naturally exists in the surface states and leads to strong spin texture. By tracing the spin polarization of the Fermi surface, one can distinguish Fermi arcs from trivial Fermi circles. The four compounds NbP, NbAs, TaP, and TaAs present an increasing amplitude of spinorbit coupling (SOC) in band structures. By comparing their surface states, we reveal the evolution of topological Fermi arcs from the spindegenerate Fermi circle to spinsplit arcs when the SOC increases from zero to a finite value. Our work presents a comprehensive understanding of the topological surface states of WSMs, which will especially be helpful for future spinrevolved photoemission and transport experiments.

(2015) Nature Physics. 11, 9, p. 728732 Abstract[All authors]
Threedimensional (3D) topological Weyl semimetals (TWSs) represent a state of quantum matter with unusual electronic structures that resemble both a '3D graphene' and a topological insulator. Their electronic structure displays pairs of Weyl points (through which the electronic bands disperse linearly along all three momentum directions) connected by topological surface states, forming a unique arklike Fermi surface (FS). Each Weyl point is chiral and contains half the degrees of freedom of a Dirac point, and can be viewed as a magnetic monopole in momentum space. By performing angleresolved photoemission spectroscopy on the noncentrosymmetric compound TaAs, here we report its complete band structure, including the unique Fermiarc FS and linear bulk band dispersion across the Weyl points, in agreement with the theoretical calculations. This discovery not only confirms TaAs as a 3D TWS, but also provides an ideal platform for realizing exotic physical phenomena (for example, negative magnetoresistance, chiral magnetic effects and the quantum anomalous Hall effect) which may also lead to novel future applications.

(2015) ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. 7, 34, p. 1922619233 Abstract
The quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect predicted in silicene has raised exciting prospects of new device applications compatible with current microelectronic technology. Efforts to explore this novel phenomenon, however, have been impeded by fundamental challenges imposed by silicene's small topologically nontrivial band gap and fragile electronic properties susceptible to environmental degradation effects. Here we propose a strategy to circumvent these challenges by encapsulating silicene between transitionmetal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) layers. Firstprinciples calculations show that such encapsulated silicene exhibit a twoordersofmagnitude enhancement in its nontrivial band gap, which is driven by the strong spinorbit coupling effect in TMDCs via the proximity effect. Moreover, the cladding TMDCs layers also shield silicene from environmental gases that are detrimental to the QSH state in freestanding silicene. The encapsulated silicene represents a novel twodimensional topological insulator with a robust nontrivial band gap suitable for roomtemperature applications, which has significant implications for innovative QSH device design and fabrication.

(2015) Nature Physics. 11, 8, p. 645649 Abstract[All authors]
Recent experiments have revealed spectacular transport properties in semimetals, such as the large, nonsaturating magnetoresistance exhibited by WTe 2 (ref.). Topological semimetals with massless relativistic electrons have also been predicted as threedimensional analogues of graphene. These systems are known as Weyl semimetals, and are predicted to have a range of exotic transport properties and surface states, distinct from those of topological insulators. Here we examine the magnetotransport properties of NbP, a material the band structure of which has been predicted to combine the hallmarks of a Weyl semimetal with those of a normal semimetal. We observe an extremely large magnetoresistance of 850,000% at 1.85 K (250% at room temperature) in a magnetic field of up to 9 T, without any signs of saturation, and an ultrahigh carrier mobility of 5 × 10 6 cm 2 V â '1 s â '1 that accompanied by strong Shubnikovde Haas (SdH) oscillations. NbP therefore presents a unique example of a material combining topological and conventional electronic phases, with intriguing physical properties resulting from their interplay.

(2015) Physical Review B. 91, 23, 235306. Abstract
The search for inversionasymmetric topological insulators (IATIs) persists as an effect for realizing new topological phenomena. However, so far only a few IATIs have been discovered and there is no IATI exhibiting a large band gap exceeding 0.6 eV. Using firstprinciples calculations, we predict a series of new IATIs in saturated Group IIIBi bilayers. We show that all these IATIs preserve extraordinary large bulk band gaps, which are well above room temperature, allowing for viable applications in roomtemperature spintronic devices. More importantly, most of these systems display large bulk band gaps that far exceed 0.6 eV and, part of them even are up to ∼1 eV, which are larger than any IATIs ever reported. The nontrivial topological situation in these systems is confirmed by the identified band inversion of the band structures, Z2 topological invariants, and an explicit demonstration of the topological edge states. Owning to their asymmetric structures, remarkable Rashba spin splitting is produced in both the valence and conduction bands of these systems. These predictions strongly revive these new systems as excellent candidates for IATIbased novel applications.

(2015) Scientific Reports. 5, 10435. Abstract
Recent theoretical studies employing densityfunctional theory have predicted BaBiO_{3} (when doped with electrons) and YBiO_{3} to become a topological insulator (TI) with a large topological gap (∼0.7 eV). This, together with the natural stability against surface oxidation, makes the BismuthOxide family of special interest for possible applications in quantum information and spintronics. The central question, we study here, is whether the holedoped Bismuth Oxides, i.e. Ba_{1x}K_{x}BiO_{3} and BaPb_{1x}Bi_{x}O_{3}, which are "highTc" bulk superconducting near 30 K, additionally display in the further vicinity of their Fermi energy E_{F} a topological gap with a Diractype of topological surface state. Our electronic structure calculations predict the Kdoped family to emerge as a TI, with a topological gap above E_{F}. Thus, these compounds can become superconductors with holedoping and potential TIs with additional electron doping. Furthermore, we predict the BismuthOxide family to contain an additional Dirac cone below E_{F} for further hole doping, which manifests these systems to be candidates for both electron and holedoped topological insulators.

(2015) Physical Review B. 91, 16, 165435. Abstract
One important feature of surface states in topological insulators is the socalled "spinmomentum locking," which means that electron spin is oriented along a fixed direction for a given momentum and forms a texture in the momentum space. In this work, we study spin textures of two typical topological insulators in Hgbased chalcogenides, namely, HgTe and HgS, based on both the firstprinciples calculation and the eightband Kane model. We find opposite helicities of spin textures between these two materials, originating from the opposite signs of spinorbit couplings. Based on the effective Kane model, we present a physical picture to understand opposite spin textures in these two materials with the help of the relationship between spin textures and mirror Chern numbers. We also reveal the existence of gapless states at the interface between HgTe and HgS due to the opposite spin textures and opposite mirror Chern numbers.

(2015) ANGEWANDTE CHEMIEINTERNATIONAL EDITION. 54, 18, p. 54175420 Abstract
Local environments and valence electron counts primarily determine the electronic states and physical properties of transitionmetal complexes. For example, squareplanar coordination geometries found in transitionmetal oxometalates such as cuprates are usually associated with the d^{8} or d^{9} electron configuration. In this work, we address an unusual squareplanar single oxoanionic [IrO_{4}]^{4} species, as observed in Na_{4}IrO_{4} in which Ir^{IV} has a d^{5} configuration, and characterize the chemical bonding through experiments and by ab initio calculations. We find that the Ir^{IV} center in groundstate Na_{4}IrO_{4} has squareplanar coordination geometry because of the weak Coulomb repulsion of the Ir5d electrons. In contrast, in its 3d counterpart Na_{4}CoO_{4}, the Co^{IV} center is tetrahedrally coordinated because of strong electron correlation. Na_{4}IrO_{4} may thus serve as a simple yet important example to study the ramifications of Hubbardtype Coulomb interactions on local geometries.

(2015) Physical Review B. 91, 9, 094107. Abstract
We have performed ab initio bandstructure calculations on more than 2000 halfHeusler compounds in order to search for new candidates for topological insulators. Herein, LiAuS and NaAuS are found to be the strongest topological insulators with the bulk band gaps of 0.20 and 0.19 eV, respectively, different from the zero bandgap feature reported in other Heusler topological insulators. Due to the inversion asymmetry of the Heusler structure, their topological surface states on the top and bottom surfaces exhibit ptype and ntype carriers, respectively. Thus, these materials may serve as an ideal platform for the realization of topological magnetoelectric effects as polar topological insulators. Moreover, these topological surface states exhibit the righthand spin texture in the upper Dirac cone, which distinguishes them from currently known topological insulator materials. Their topological nontrivial character remains robust against inplane strains, which makes them suitable for epitaxial growth of films.

(2015) Physical review letters. 114, 11, 117201. Abstract[All authors]
Cd3As2 is a candidate threedimensional Dirac semimetal which has exceedingly high mobility and nonsaturating linear magnetoresistance that may be relevant for future practical applications. We report magnetotransport and tunnel diode oscillation measurements on Cd3As2, in magnetic fields up to 65 T and temperatures between 1.5 and 300 K. We find that the nonsaturating linear magnetoresistance persists up to 65 T and it is likely caused by disorder effects, as it scales with the high mobility rather than directly linked to Fermi surface changes even when approaching the quantum limit. From the observed quantum oscillations, we determine the bulk threedimensional Fermi surface having signatures of Dirac behavior with a nontrivial Berry phase shift, very light effective quasiparticle masses, and clear deviations from the bandstructure predictions. In very high fields we also detect signatures of large Zeeman spin splitting (g∼16).

(2015) Zeitschrift fur Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie. 641, 2, p. 197205 Abstract[All authors]
Double perovskites Sr_{2}BOsO_{6} (B = Y, In, and Sc) were prepared from the respective binary metal oxides, and their structural, magnetic, and electronic properties were investigated. At room temperature all these compounds crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2_{1}/n. They contain magnetic osmium (Os^{5+}, t_{2g}^{3}) ions and are antiferromagnetic insulators with Néel temperatures TN = 53 K, 26 K, and 92 K for B = Y, In, and Sc, respectively. Powder neutron diffraction studies on Sr_{2}YOsO_{6} and Sr_{2}InOsO_{6} showed that the crystal structures remain unchanged down to 3 K. The Y and In compounds feature a type I antiferromagnetic spin structure with ordered Os moments of 1.91 μ_{B} and 1.77 μ_{B}, respectively. The trend in TN does not simply follow the development of the lattice parameters, which suggests that d^{0} compared to d^{10} ions on the B site favor a somewhat different balance of exchange interactions in the frustrated Os^{5+} fcclike lattice.

(2015) Carbon. 87, C, p. 418423 Abstract
Graphene is the first model system of twodimensional topological insulator (TI), also known as quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulator. The QSH effect in graphene, however, has eluded direct experimental detection because of its extremely small energy gap due to the weak spinorbit coupling. Here we predict by ab initio calculations a giant (three orders of magnitude) proximity induced enhancement of the TI energy gap in the graphene layer that is sandwiched between thin slabs of Sb_{2}Te_{3} (or MoTe_{2}). This gap (1.5 meV) is accessible by existing experimental techniques, and it can be further enhanced by tuning the interlayer distance via compression. We reveal by a tightbinding study that the QSH state in graphene is driven by the KaneMele interaction in competition with Kekulé deformation and symmetry breaking. The present work identifies a new family of graphenebased TIs with an observable and controllable bulk energy gap in the graphene layer, thus opening a new avenue for direct verification and exploration of the longsought QSH effect in graphene.

(2015) Nature Communications. 6, 10167. Abstract[All authors]
Gold surfaces host special electronic states that have been understood as a prototype of Shockley surface states. These surface states are commonly employed to benchmark the capability of angleresolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. Here we show that these Shockley surface states can be reinterpreted as topologically derived surface states (TDSSs) of a topological insulator (TI), a recently discovered quantum state. Based on band structure calculations, the Z_{2}type invariants of gold can be welldefined to characterize a TI. Further, our ARPES measurement validates TDSSs by detecting the dispersion of unoccupied surface states. The same TDSSs are also recognized on surfaces of other wellknown noble metals (for example, silver, copper, platinum and palladium), which shines a new light on these longknown surface states.
2014

(2014) Physical review letters. 113, 25, 256401. Abstract
Recently, the longsough quantum anomalous Hall effect was realized in a magnetic topological insulator. However, the requirement of an extremely low temperature (approximately 30 mK) hinders realistic applications. Based on ab initio band structure calculations, we propose a quantum anomalous Hall platform with a large energy gap of 0.34 and 0.06 eV on honeycomb lattices comprised of Sn and Ge, respectively. The ferromagnetic (FM) order forms in one sublattice of the honeycomb structure by controlling the surface functionalization rather than dilute magnetic doping, which is expected to be visualized by spin polarized STM in experiment. Strong coupling between the inherent quantum spin Hall state and ferromagnetism results in considerable exchange splitting and, consequently, an FM insulator with a large energy gap. The estimated meanfield Curie temperature is 243 and 509 K for Sn and Ge lattices, respectively. The large energy gap and high Curie temperature indicate the feasibility of the quantum anomalous Hall effect in the nearroomtemperature and even roomtemperature regions.

(2014) Physical Review B. 90, 16, 165140. Abstract
Topological insulators are known for their metallic surface states, a result of strong spinorbit coupling, that exhibit unique surface transport phenomenon. However, these surface transport phenomena are buried in the presence of metallic bulk conduction. We synthesized very high quality Bi2Te2Se single crystals by using a modified Bridgman method that possess high bulk resistivity of >20 Ωcm below 20 K, whereas the bulk is mostly inactive and surface transport dominates. The temperature dependence of resistivity follows an activation law like a gap semiconductor in temperature range 20300 K. To extract the surface transport from that of the bulk, we designed a special measurement geometry to measure the resistance and found that singlecrystal Bi2Te2Se exhibits a crossover from bulk to surface conduction at 20 K. Simultaneously, the material also shows strong evidence of weak antilocalization in magnetotransport owing to the protection against scattering by conducting surface states. This simple geometry facilitates finding evidence of surface transport in topological insulators, which are promising materials for future spintronic applications.

(2014) ACS Nano. 8, 10, p. 1044810454 Abstract
We predict a family of robust twodimensional (2D) topological insulators in van der Waals heterostructures comprising graphene and chalcogenides BiTeX (X = Cl, Br, and I). The layered structures of both constituent materials produce a naturally smooth interface that is conducive to proximityinduced topological states. Firstprinciples calculations reveal intrinsic topologically nontrivial bulk energy gaps as large as 7080 meV, which can be further enhanced up to 120 meV by compression. The strong spinorbit coupling in BiTeX has a significant influence on the graphene Dirac states, resulting in the topologically nontrivial band structure, which is confirmed by calculated nontrivial Z_{2} index and an explicit demonstration of metallic edge states. Such heterostructures offer a unique Dirac transport system that combines the 2D Dirac states from graphene and 1D Dirac edge states from the topological insulator, and it offers ideas for innovative device designs.

(2014) MRS Bulletin. 39, 10, p. 859866 Abstract
Ternary semiconducting or metallic halfHeusler compounds with an atomic composition 1:1:1 are widely studied for their flexible electronic properties and functionalities. Recently, a new material property of halfHeusler compounds was predicted based on electronic structure calculations: the topological insulator. In topological insulators, the metallic surface states are protected from impurity backscattering due to spinmomentum locking. This opens up new perspectives in engineering multifunctional materials. In this article, we introduce halfHeusler materials from the crystallographic and electronic structure point of view. We present an effective model Hamiltonian from which the topological state can be derived, notably from a nontrivial inverted band structure. We discuss general implications of the inverted band structure with a focus on the detection of the topological surface states in experiments by reviewing several exemplary materials. Special attention is given to superconducting halfHeusler materials, which have attracted ample attention as a platform for noncentrosymmetric and topological superconductivity.

(2014) Physical Review B. 90, 10, 100505. Abstract
Timereversal breaking topological superconductors are new states of matter which can support Majorana zero modes at the edge. In this Rapid Communication, we propose a different realization of onedimensional topological superconductivity and Majorana zero modes. The proposed system consists of a monolayer of transitionmetal dichalcogenides MX2 (M=Mo,W; X=S,Se) on top of a superconducting substrate. Based on firstprinciples calculations, we show that a zigzag edge of the monolayer MX2 terminated by a metal atom M has edge states with strong spinorbit coupling and spontaneous magnetization. By proximity coupling with a superconducting substrate, topological superconductivity can be induced at such an edge. We propose NbS2 as a natural choice of substrate, and estimate the proximity induced superconducting gap based on firstprinciples calculation and a low energy effective model. As an experimental consequence of our theory, we predict that Majorana zero modes can be detected at the 120° corner of a MX2 flake in proximity to a superconducting substrate.

(2014) EPL. 107, 5, 57006. Abstract
The topological surface states of mercury telluride (HgTe) are studied by ab initio calculations assuming different strains and surface terminations. For the Teterminated surface, a single Dirac cone exists at the Γpoint. The Dirac point shifts up from the bulk valence bands into the energy gap when the substrateinduced strain increases. At the experimental strain value (0.3%), the Dirac point lies slightly below the bulk valence band maximum. A lefthanded spin texture was observed in the upper Dirac cone, similar to that of the Bi_{2}Se_{3}type topological insulator. For the Hgterminated surface, three Dirac cones appear at three timereversalinvariant momenta, excluding the Γpoint, with nontrivial spin textures.

(2014) Physical Review B. 90, 7, 075438. Abstract
Topological insulators represent a paradigm shift in surface physics. The most extensively studied Bi2Se3type topological insulators exhibit layered structures, wherein neighboring layers are weakly bonded by van der Waals interactions. Using firstprinciples densityfunctional theory calculations, we investigate the impact of the stacking sequence on the energetics and band structure properties of three polymorphs of Bi2Se3,Bi2Te3, and Sb2Te3. Considering their ultrathin films up to 6 nm as a function of its layer thickness, the overall dispersion of the band structure is found to be insensitive to the stacking sequence, while the band gap is highly sensitive, which may also affect the critical thickness for the onset of the topologically nontrivial phase. Our calculations are consistent with both experimental and theoretical results, where available. We further investigate tribological layer slippage, where we find a relatively low energy barrier between two of the considered structures. Both the stackingdependent band gap and low slippage energy barriers suggest that polymorphic stacking modification may offer an alternative route for controlling the properties of this new state of matter.

(2014) Nanoscale. 6, 13, p. 74747479 Abstract
Developing graphenebased nanoelectronics hinges on opening a band gap in the electronic structure of graphene, which is commonly achieved by breaking the inversion symmetry of the graphene lattice via an electric field (gate bias) or asymmetric doping of graphene layers. Here we introduce a new design strategy that places a bilayer graphene sheet sandwiched between two cladding layers of materials that possess strong spinorbit coupling (e.g., Bi_{2}Te _{3}). Our ab initio and tightbinding calculations show that a proximity enhanced spinorbit coupling effect opens a large (44 meV) band gap in bilayer graphene without breaking its lattice symmetry, and the band gap can be effectively tuned by an interlayer stacking pattern and significantly enhanced by interlayer compression. The feasibility of this quantumwell structure is demonstrated by recent experimental realization of highquality heterojunctions between graphene and Bi_{2}Te_{3}, and this design also conforms to existing fabrication techniques in the semiconductor industry. The proposed quantumwell structure is expected to be especially robust since it does not require an external power supply to open and maintain a band gap, and the cladding layers provide protection against environmental degradation of the graphene layer in its device applications.

(2014) Physical Review B. 89, 21, 214414. Abstract
Using densityfunctional theory calculations, we investigated the electronic structure and magnetic exchange interactions of the ordered 3d5d double perovskite Sr2FeOsO6, which has recently drawn attention for interesting antiferromagnetic transitions. Our study reveals the vital role played by longrange magnetic exchange interactions in this compound. The competition between the ferromagnetic nearestneighbor OsOFe interaction and antiferromagnetic nextnearestneighbor OsOFeOOs interaction induces strong frustration in this system, which explains the lattice distortion and magnetic phase transitions observed in experiments.

(2014) Hyperfine Interactions. 226, 13, p. 289297 Abstract
The insulating and antiferromagnetic double perovskite Sr_{2}FeOsO_{6} has been studied by ^{57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy between 5 and 295 K. The iron atoms are essentially in the Fe^{3+} high spin (t_{2g}^{3}) and thus the osmium atoms in the Os^{5+}(t_{2g}^{3}) state. Two magnetic phase transitions, which according to neutron diffraction studies occur below T _{N} = 140 K and T _{2} = 67 K, give rise to magnetic hyperfine patterns, which differ considerably in the hyperfine fields and thus, in the corresponding ordered magnetic moments. The evolution of hyperfine field distributions, average values of the hyperfine fields, and magnetic moments with temperature suggests that the magnetic state formed below T _{N} is strongly frustrated. The frustration is released by a magnetostructural transition which below T _{2} leads to a different spin sequence along the cdirection of the tetragonal crystal structure.

(2014) Physical review letters. 112, 14, 147202. Abstract[All authors]
Magnetic properties and spin dynamics have been studied for the structurally ordered double perovskite Sr2CoOsO6. Neutron diffraction, muonspin relaxation, and acsusceptibility measurements reveal two antiferromagnetic (AFM) phases on cooling from room temperature down to 2 K. In the first AFM phase, with transition temperature TN1=108K, cobalt (3d7, S=3/2) and osmium (5d2, S=1) moments fluctuate dynamically, while their average effective moments undergo longrange order. In the second AFM phase below TN2=67K, cobalt moments first become frozen and induce a noncollinear spincanted AFM state, while dynamically fluctuating osmium moments are later frozen into a randomly canted state at T≈5K. Ab initio calculations indicate that the effective exchange coupling between cobalt and osmium sites is rather weak, so that cobalt and osmium sublattices exhibit different ground states and spin dynamics, making Sr2CoOsO6 distinct from previously reported doubleperovskite compounds.

(2014) Physical Review B. 89, 4, 041409. Abstract
Based on firstprinciples calculations, we predict Bi2TeI, a stoichiometric compound that is synthesized, to be a weak topological insulator (TI) in layered subvalent bismuth telluroiodides. Within a bulk energy gap of 80 meV, two Diracconelike topological surface states exist on the side surface perpendicular to the BiTeI layer plane. These Dirac cones are relatively isotropic due to the strong interlayer coupling, distinguished from those of previously reported weak TI candidates. Moreover, with chemically stable cladding layers, the BiTeIBi2BiTeI sandwiched structure is a robust quantum spin Hall system, which can be obtained by simply cleaving the bulk Bi2TeI.
2013

(2013) Nano Letters. 13, 12, p. 62516255 Abstract
Topological insulators (TIs) represent a new quantum state of matter characterized by robust gapless states inside the insulating bulk gap. The metallic edge states of a twodimensional (2D) TI, known as the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect, are immune to backscattering and carry fully spinpolarized dissipationless currents. However, existing 2D TIs realized in HgTe and InAs/GaSb suffer from small bulk gaps (

(2013) Nature Physics. 9, 11, p. 709711 Abstract
Topological insulators are a new class of quantum materials that are characterized by robust topological surface states (TSSs) inside the bulk insulating gap, which hold great potential for applications in quantum information and spintronics as well as thermoelectrics. One major obstacle is the relatively small size of the bulk bandgap, which is typically around 0.3 eV for the known topological insulator materials (ref.and references therein). Here we demonstrate through ab initio calculations that a known superconductor BaBiO 3 (BBO) with a T c of nearly 30 K (refs,) emerges as a topological insulator in the electrondoped region. BBO exhibits a large topological energy gap of 0.7 eV, inside which a Dirac type of TSSs exists. As the first oxide topological insulator, BBO is naturally stable against surface oxidization and degradation, distinct from chalcogenide topological insulators. An extra advantage of BBO lies in its ability to serve as an interface between TSSs and superconductors to realize Majorana fermions for future applications in quantum computation.

(2013) Physical Review B. 88, 19, 195128. Abstract
The surface band bending tunes considerably the surface band structures and transport properties in topological insulators. We present a direct measurement of the band bending on the Bi_{2}Se_{3} by using the bulk sensitive angularresolved hard xray photospectroscopy (HAXPES). We tracked the depth dependence of the energy shift of Bi and Se core states. We estimate that the band bending extends up to about 20 nm into the bulk with an amplitude of 0.230.26 eV, consistent with profiles previously deduced from the binding energies of surface states in this material.

(2013) EPL. 104, 3, 30001. Abstract
The binary compounds FeSi, RuSi, and OsSi are chiral insulators crystallizing in the space group P2_{13} which is cubic. By means of ab initio calculations we find for these compounds a nonvanishing electronic Berry phase, the sign of which depends on the handedness of the crystal. There is thus the possibility that the Berry phase signals the existence of a macroscopic electric polarization due to the electrons. We show that this is indeed so if a small external magnetic field is applied in the [111] direction. The electric polarization is oscillatory in the magnetic field and possesses a signature that distinguishes the handedness of the crystal. Our findings add to the discussion of topological classifications of insulators and are significant for spintronics applications, and in particular, for a deeper understanding of skyrmions in insulators.

Lattice instability and competing spin structures in the double perovskite insulator Sr_{2}FeOsO_{6}(2013) Physical review letters. 111, 16, 167205. Abstract[All authors]
The semiconductor Sr_{2}FeOsO_{6}, depending on temperature, adopts two types of spin structures that differ in the spin sequence of ferrimagnetic ironosmium layers along the tetragonal c axis. Neutron powder diffraction experiments, Fe57 Mössbauer spectra, and density functional theory calculations suggest that this behavior arises because a lattice instability resulting in alternating ironosmium distances finetunes the balance of competing exchange interactions. Thus, Sr_{2}FeOsO _{6} is an example of a double perovskite, in which the electronic phases are controlled by the interplay of spin, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom.

(2013) Physical Review Letters. 111, 13, 136804. Abstract
The search for largegap quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulators and effective approaches to tune QSH states is important for both fundamental and practical interests. Based on firstprinciples calculations we find twodimensional tin films are QSH insulators with sizable bulk gaps of 0.3 eV, sufficiently large for practical applications at room temperature. These QSH states can be effectively tuned by chemical functionalization and by external strain. The mechanism for the QSH effect in this system is band inversion at the Gamma point, similar to the case of a HgTe quantum well. With surface doping of magnetic elements, the quantum anomalous Hall effect could also be realized.

(2013) Inorganic Chemistry. 52, 11, p. 67136719 Abstract
In the exploration of new osmium based double perovskites, Sr _{2}FeOsO_{6} is a new insertion in the existing family. The polycrystalline compound has been prepared by solid state synthesis from the respective binary oxides. Powder Xray diffraction (PXRD) analysis shows the structure is pseudocubic at room temperature, whereas lowtemperature synchrotron data refinements reveal the structure to be tetragonal, space group I4/m. Heat capacity and magnetic measurements of Sr_{2}FeOsO_{6} indicated the presence of two magnetic phase transitions at T_{1} = 140 K and T_{2} = 67 K. Band structure calculations showed the compound as a narrow energy gap semiconductor, which supports the experimental results obtained from the resistivity measurements. The present study documents significant structural and electronic effects of substituting Fe^{3+} for Cr^{3+} ion in Sr_{2}CrOsO_{6}.

(2013) Journal Of PhysicsCondensed Matter. 25, 20, 206006. Abstract
We investigate the structural stability and magnetic properties of the cubic, tetragonal and hexagonal phases of Mn_{3}Z (Z=Ga, Sn and Ge) Heusler compounds using firstprinciples densityfunctional theory. We propose that the cubic phase plays an important role as an intermediate state in the phase transition from the hexagonal to the tetragonal phases. Consequently, Mn_{3}Ga and Mn_{3}Ge behave differently from Mn_{3}Sn, because the relative energies of the cubic and hexagonal phases are different. This result agrees with experimental observations for these three compounds. The weak ferromagnetism of the hexagonal phase and the perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the tetragonal phase obtained in our calculations are also consistent with experiment.

(2013) Journal Of PhysicsCondensed Matter. 25, 15, 155601. Abstract
We propose the concept of 'topological Hamiltonian' for topological insulators and superconductors in interacting systems. The eigenvalues of the topological Hamiltonian are significantly different from the physical energy spectra, but we show that the topological Hamiltonian contains the information of gapless surface states, therefore it is an exact tool for topological invariants.

(2013) Nano Letters. 13, 3, p. 10731079 Abstract
In Dirac materials, like graphene or topological insulators, massless pseudorelativistic electrons promise new, very fast electronic devices by utilizing the partial suppression of backscattering. However, the semimetal nature of graphene makes the realization of practical field effect transistors difficult, due to small onoff current ratios. Here, we propose a new concept, based on Dirac states inside the conduction (or valence) band of a lightly doped wide band gap semiconductor. With the application of a gate voltage, the Dirac states become populated; that is, the Fermi level is switched between the "classical" highresistivity semiconducting and the relativistic highmobility metallic range. We demonstrate by theoretical calculations that such a transition can be realized, for example, in thin anatase nanowires, which have been synthesized before. Tadoped anatase nanowires offer an excellent possibility to build field effect transistors with high speed and good onoff ratio. Guidelines for finding similar "Dirac semiconductors" are provided.

(2013) Physica Status SolidiRapid Research Letters. 7, 12, p. 91100 Abstract
Topological insulators (TIs) are a new quantum state of matter which have gapless surface states inside the bulk energy gap [14]. Starting with the discovery of twodimensional TIs, the HgTebased quantum wells [5, 6], many new topological materials have been theoretically predicted and experimentally observed. Currently known TI materials can possibly be classified into two families [7], the HgTe family and the Bi_{2}Se_{3} family. The signatures found in the electronic structure of a TI also cause these materials to be excellent thermoelectric materials [810]. On the other hand, excellent thermoelectric materials can be also topologically trivial. Here we present a short introduction to topological insulators and thermoelectrics, and give examples of compound classes where both good thermoelectric properties and topological insulators can be found.

(2013) Physica Status SolidiRapid Research Letters. 7, 12, p. 148150 Abstract
Although topological surface states are known to be robust against nonmagnetic surface perturbations, their band dispersions and spatial distributions are still sensitive to surface defects. Taking Bi_{2}Se_{3} as an example, we demonstrate that Se vacancies modify the surface band structures considerably. When large numbers of Se vacancies exist on the surface, topological surface states may sink down from the first to the second quintuple layer and get separated from the vacancies. We simulated scanning tunnelling microscopy images to distinguish surfaces with Se and Bi terminations.

(2013) Physica Status SolidiRapid Research Letters. 7, 12, p. 1314 Abstract
Topological insulators (TIs) are a new quantum state of matter discovered in recent years. They are beyond the spontaneous symmetrybreaking description by Landau and are instead characterized by topological invariants, and described by topological field theory. Their topological nature is similar to the quantum Hall effect, a major discovery of condensedmatter physics in 1980s (Klaus von Klitzing, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1985). The manifestation of the topological effect is the existence of robust gapless surface states inside the bulk energy gap. The topological surface states exhibit Diracconelike energy dispersion with strong spinmomentum locking. Potential future applications cover areas such as spintronics, thermoelectrics, quantum computing and beyond. It is remarkable that TIs have been realized in many common materials, without the requirement of extreme conditions such as high magnetic field and low temperature. The first TI was predicted in 2006 and experimentally realized in 2007 in HgTe quantum wells. Soon afterwards, three traditionally wellknown binary chalcogenides, Bi_{2}Se_{3}, Bi_{2}Te_{3} and Sb_{2}Te_{3}, were predicted and observed to be TIs with a large bulk gap and a metallic surface state consisting of a single Dirac cone. The discovery of these topological materials opened up the exciting field of topological insulators. Extensive experimental and theoretical efforts are devoted to synthesizing and optimizing samples, characterizing the topological states by surface sensitive spectroscopy, transport measurements, device fabrications, and searching for new material candidates. The field of TIs is now expanding at a rapid pace in the communities of physics, chemistry and materials science. In this Focus Issue, we intend to present a highquality snapshot of the materials and applications aspect of this field. We present ten Review papers from both experiment and theory aspects. Five experimental papers [15] overview recent status and challenges of TI nanostructures [1], magnetotransport and induced superconductivity [2], chemistry of Bibased TI materials [3], molecular beam epitaxial growth of TI thin films [4], and angleresolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) with circular dichroism [5]. On the other hand, five theoretical papers [610] report the progress from different perspectives: materials design by firstprinciples calculations [6, 7], the relations between TIs and thermoelectric materials [8], Floquet TIs [9], and the classification of topological states [10]. We present ten Letters that cover various aspects, ranging from ARPES, transport measurement and devices, thin film growth to firstprinciples simulations and fundamental theory. Letters on ARPES [1114] report the surface states of HgTe [11], Bi_{2}Se_{3} [12, 13] and Bi_{2}Te_{3} [11, 14], in which the surface modification, defect doping and electronphonon coupling are discussed; a paper on transport experiments [15] demonstrates the coexistence of electron and holetype charge carriers in devices of Sb_{2}Te_{3}/Bi_{2}Te_{3} heterostructures; the growth of YPtSb thin film is reported [16], which is a Heusler compound near the boundary of topological trivialnontrivial transition. Corresponding to the ARPES experiments, a Letter of band structure calculations [17] also reveals the effect of vacancy defects on Bi_{2}Se_{3} surface states; another paper [18] shows the dependence of edge state dispersion on edge geometry of graphene. Last but not the least, two papers on phenomenological models [19, 20] report the maximally localized flatband Hamiltonians and the spectra flow for AharonovBohm rings, respectively. We hope that this Focus Issue will be helpful for your research and stimulate more activity in the exciting field of topological insulators.

(2013) Physical review letters. 110, 1, 016403. Abstract
Gas molecule doping on the topological insulator Bi_{2}Se _{3} surface with existing Se vacancies is investigated using firstprinciples calculations. Consistent with experiments, NO_{2} and O_{2} are found to occupy the Se vacancy sites, remove vacancydoped electrons, and restore the band structure of a perfect surface. In contrast, NO and H_{2} do not favor passivation of such vacancies. Interestingly we have revealed a NO_{2} dissociation process that can well explain the speculative introduced "photondoping" effect reported by recent experiments. Experimental strategies to validate this mechanism are presented. The choice and the effect of different passivators are discussed. This step paves the way for the usage of such materials in device applications utilizing robust topological surface states.
2012

(2012) Physical Review Letters. 109, 11, 116406. Abstract
We report the discovery of weak topological insulators by ab initio calculations in a honeycomb lattice. We propose a structure with an odd number of layers in the primitive unit cell as a prerequisite for forming weak topological insulators. Here, the singlelayered KHgSb is the most suitable candidate for its large bulk energy gap of 0.24 eV. Its side surface hosts metallic surface states, forming two anisotropic Dirac cones. Although the stacking of evenlayered structures leads to trivial insulators, the structures can host a quantum spin Hall layer with a large bulk gap, if an additional single layer exists as a stacking fault in the crystal. The reported honeycomb compounds can serve as prototypes to aid in the finding of new weak topological insulators in layered smallgap semiconductors.

(2012) Nano Letters. 12, 7, p. 34603465 Abstract
A phosphorus (P) donor has been extensively studied in bulk Si to realize the concept of Kane quantum computers. In most cases the quantum bit was realized as an entanglement between the donor electron spin and the nonzero nuclei spin of the donor impurity mediated by the hyperfine coupling between them. The donor ionization energies and the spinlattice relaxation time limited the temperatures to a few kelvin in these experiments. Here, we demonstrate by means of ab initio density functional theory calculations that quantum confinement in thin Si nanowires (SiNWs) results in (i) larger excitation energies of donor impurity and (ii) a sensitive manipulation of the hyperfine coupling by external electric field. We propose that these features may allow to realize the quantum bit (qubit) experiments at elevated temperatures with a strength of electric fields applicable in current fieldeffect transistor technology. We also show that the strength of quantum confinement and the presence of strain induced by the surface termination may significantly affect the ground and excited states of the donors in thin SiNWs, possibly allowing an optical readout of the electron spin.

(2012) Physical Review B. 85, 16, 165125. Abstract
We propose new topological insulators in ceriumfilled skutterudite (FS) compounds based on ab initio calculations. We find that two compounds, CeOs _{4}As _{12} and CeOs _{4}Sb _{12}, are zero gap materials with band inversions between Osd and Cef orbitals, similar to HgTe. Both compounds are predicted to become topological Kondo insulators at low temperatures, which are Kondo insulators in the bulk but with robust Dirac surface states on the boundary. Furthermore, this family of topological insulators has more unique features. Due to similar lattice parameters there will be a good proximity effect with other superconducting FS compounds, which may realize Majorana fermions. Additionally, the experimentally observed antiferromagnetic phase of CeOs _{4}Sb _{12} at very low temperature provides a way to realize the massive Dirac fermion with topological magnetoelectric effects.

(2012) Reports on Progress in Physics. 75, 9, 096501. Abstract
Recently, topological insulator materials have been theoretically predicted and experimentally observed in both 2D and 3D systems. We first review the basic models and physical properties of topological insulators, using HgTe and Bi _{2}Se _{3} as prime examples. We then give a comprehensive survey of topological insulators which have been predicted so far, and discuss the current experimental status.

2011

(2011) Physical review letters. 106, 15, 156402. Abstract
We investigate a new class of ternary materials such as LiAuSe and KHgSb with a honeycomb structure in AuSe and HgSb layers. We demonstrate the band inversion in these materials similar to HgTe, which is a strong precondition for existence of the topological surface states. In contrast with graphene, these materials exhibit strong spinorbit coupling and a small direct band gap at the Γ point. Since these materials are centrosymmetric, it is straightforward to determine the parity of their wave functions, and hence their topological character. Surprisingly, the compound with strong spinorbit coupling (KHgSb) is trivial, whereas LiAuSe is found to be a topological insulator.
2010

(2010) Physical Review B. 82, 16, 161108. Abstract
A different class of threedimensional topological insulator, ternary rareearth chalcogenides, is theoretically investigated with ab initio calculations. Based on both bulk bandstructure analysis and the direct calculation of topological surface states, we demonstrate that LaBiTe _{3} is a topological insulator. La can be substituted by other rare earth elements, which provide candidates for novel topological states such as quantum anomalous Hall insulator, axionic insulator, and topological Kondo insulator. Moreover, YBiTe_{3} and YSbTe_{3} are found to be normal insulators. They can be used as protecting barrier materials for both LaBiTe_{3} and Bi_{2} Te_{3} families of topological insulators for their wellmatched lattice constants and chemical composition.

(2010) Nano Letters. 10, 9, p. 37913795 Abstract
Due to the proximity to an embedding medium with low dielectric constant (e.g., oxides), semiconductor nanowires have higher impurity ionization energy than their bulk counterparts, resulting lower free carrier density. Using ab initio calculations within density functional theory, we propose a way to reduce the ionization energy in nanowires by fabricating a special cross section with appropriate engineering of doping and an applied gate voltage. We demonstrate on a phosphorusdoped silicon nanowire that the ionization energy can be effectively tuned and the impurity backscattering can also be reduced. For instance, even without special engineering of doping, the free carrier density may increase by 40% in a silicon nanowire with 15 nm diameter and special cross section. Our proposal has profound implications to fabricate nanowire devices with high carrier density.

(2010) Physical Review B. 81, 4, 041307. Abstract
We investigate the crossover regime from threedimensional topological insulators Bi2 Te3 and Bi2 Se3 to twodimensional topological insulators with quantum spin Hall effect when the layer thickness is reduced. Using both analytical models and firstprinciples calculations, we find that the crossover occurs in an oscillatory fashion as a function of the layer thickness, alternating between topologically trivial and nontrivial twodimensional behavior.

(2010) EPL. 90, 3, 37002. Abstract
We predict a new class of threedimensional topological insulators in thalliumbased IIIVVI_{2} ternary chalcogenides, including TlBiQ _{2} and TlSbQ_{2} (Q=Te, Se and S). These topological insulators have robust and simple surface states consisting of a single Dirac cone at the Γ point. The mechanism for topological insulating behavior is elucidated using both firstprinciple calculations and effective field theory models. Remarkably, one topological insulator in this class, TlBiTe_{2}, is also a superconductor when doped with ptype carriers. We discuss the possibility that this material could be a topological superconductor. Another material, TlSbS_{2}, is on the border between topological insulator and trivial insulator phases, in which a topological phase transition can be driven by pressure.
2009

(2009) Physical review letters. 103, 26, 266102. Abstract
Atomic motion through excitation of extended surface electronic states on Ge(001) is studied using extraction of electrons by scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory. Singleelectron excitation into the surface states nonlocally alters the tilting orientation of the surface Ge dimer, and the change rate depends on the excitation energy. Theoretical investigations identify the excited electronic states for the dimer motion, and clarify the strong coupling between the surface state electrons and a local vibrational mode of the dimer for changing the tilting orientation.


(2009) Physical Review B. 79, 23, 235437. Abstract
Using firstprinciples methods we studied structural and electronic properties of asymmetric heterogeneous XSi (X=Ge, Sn, and Pb) dimers on the Si(001) surface and their scatterings for the quasionedimensional π electrons. The XSi dimer with impurity atom X at the lower position scatters more strongly the π electrons than that with X at the upper position. Calculated scattering potentials can be qualitatively explained by the difference in p orbital energy between Si and the lower atom of the XSi dimer. We predict that the amplitude of electronic standing waves changes significantly between the two oppositely buckled XSi dimers in differential conductance images of scanning tunneling microscopy. This suggests the possibility of fabricating atomic switches to control the conduction of π electrons along the dimer row. Our proposed atomic switches could be achieved by flipping the impurity dimers on the Si(001) surface using the method developed in recent experiments. Finally, we proposed the model for dimerflipping mechanism, which can explain previous experiment.

(2009) Surface Science. 603, 5, p. 781787 Abstract
Surface motion of a topological defect between p (2 × 2) and c (4 × 2) structures, a "kink", across buckled SnGe and SiGe dimers on Ge(0 0 1) surfaces was investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy. Energy thresholds of π^{*} electrons for flipping these dimers in the kink are obtained by analyzing the kink surface motion. Electronic states of these systems and energy barriers for flipping the dimers are examined by firstprinciples calculations for considering elementary processes of the electronicallyexcited flip motion of the dimers. We propose that the flip motion is caused by a resonant scattering of the π^{*} electrons with localized electronic states at the kink.

(2009) Applied Physics Letters. 94, 19, 193106. Abstract
Our firstprinciples calculations indicate the possibility of preparing spinpolarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SPSTM) probes from Fedoped capped carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The structural stability, magnetic moment, and electronic property of hybrid systems are found to depend on the Fe adsorption site, which is attributed to the hybridization between Fe 3d and C 2p orbitals. The CNTs with Fe atoms adsorbed at the tiptop are demonstrated to be promising candidates for the SPSTM probe, with a high spin polarization leading to a completely spinpolarized current at lower voltages. In contrast, the CNTs encapsulating Fe atom are basically nonmagnetic, and thus useless for the SPSTM probe application in nature.
2008

(2008) Journal of the American Chemical Society. 130, 50, p. 1701217015 Abstract
We investigate the electronic structures and electron emission properties of alkalidoped boronnitride nanotubes (BNNTs) using densityfunctional theory calculations. We find that the nearly freeelectron (NFE) state of the BNNT couples with the alkali atom states, giving rise to metallic states near the Fermi level. Unlike the cases of potassiumdoped carbon nanotubes, not only the s but the d orbital state substantially takes part in the hybridization, and the resulting metallic states preserve the freeelectronlike energy dispersion. Through firstprinciples electron dynamic simulations under applied fields, it is shown that the alkalidoped BNNT can generate an emission current 2 orders of magnitude larger than the carbon nanotube. The nodeless wave function at the Fermi level, together with the lowered work function, constitutes the major advantage of the alkalidoped BNNT in electron emission. We propose that the alkalidoped BNNT should be an excellent electron emitter in terms of the large emission current as well as its chemical and mechanical stability.

(2008) Physical Review B. 78, 8, 081401. Abstract
Scattering potentials for π electrons at SiGe and SnGe dimers on a Ge(001) surface are studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and ab initio calculations. Phaseshift analysis of standing waves in dI/dV images reveals that Si and Sn atoms located in the conduction path of π electrons form potentials with the sign opposite to each other. Densityfunctional calculations and simple calculations based on the nearlyfreeelectron model explain the observed potential structures. These results are qualitatively understood by relative p orbital energy of the Si, Sn, and Ge atoms.

(2008) Physical Review B. 77, 24, 245303. Abstract
We have comparatively studied the hydrogen (H)induced metallization mechanism and characteristics for zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires with (2 1̄ 1̄ 0) side surface and the ZnO surface with the same index by density functional theory calculations. It is found that the ZnO surfaces and nanowires with only surface oxygen (O) atoms saturated by H (denoted as ZnOH) become metallic, while the pristine and heterolytically chemisorbed systems are semiconducting. For the ZnOH (2 1̄ 1̄ 0) surface, the 4s states of surface Zn atoms contribute to the sawtoothlike conducting pathways along the [0001] direction, rendering the surface metallic. By contrast, in the ZnOH (2 1̄ 1̄ 0) nanowire, apart from the 4s states of side surface Zn atoms, both the Zn4s and O2p states of the corner atoms also significantly contribute to Hinduced metallization due to the curvature effect. In this case, the linear and sawtoothlike conducting pathways exist in the corner and the sides, respectively. With the semiconductortometal transition dependent on hydrogen concentration, ZnO (2 1̄ 1̄ 0) nanowire is proposed to be a good candidate for nanoscale chemical sensors or electronic devices for miniaturization.
2007

Theoretical study on energy levels and photophysical properties of pn block oligomers(2007) Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials. 9, 5, p. 13731376 Abstract
Recently, a novel series of oligomers consisting of thiophene as ptype unit and oxadiazole as ntype unit were successfully synthesized. In this article, we present a firstprinciples study of the electronic, and optical properties on pn diblock and triblock oligomers systematically. Theoretical studies showed changing the number of thiophene and oxadiazole unit could effectively modulate the electronic properties of pn diblock and triblock oligomers. The electronic and photophysical properties of theoretical calculation results were in consistent with observed experimental results. These results provide useful guidelines to control the band gap principle of pn hereostructure oligomers systems, and fundamental insights into understanding the electronic and photophysical properties in pn hereostructure oligomers systems.

(2007) Applied Physics Letters. 91, 10, 103107. Abstract
Firstprinciples calculations of crystalline silicon nanotubes (SiNTs) show that nonuniformity in wall thickness can cause sizable variation in the band gap as well as notable shift in the optical absorption spectrum. A unique quantum confinement behavior is observed: the electronic wave functions of the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum are due mainly to atoms located in the thicker side of the tube wall. This is advantageous to spatially separate the doping impurities from the conducting channel in doped SiNTs. Practically, the performance of the SiNTbased transistors may be substantially improved by selective pn doping in the thinner side of the tube wall in the spirit of modulation doping.
2006

(2006) Applied Physics Letters. 89, 2, 23104. Abstract
Firstprinciples calculations are performed to study the mechanical properties, electronic structure, and uniaxialstress effects of betaSiC nanowires (NWs). It is found that the band gap of SiC NWs becomes larger as their diameter decreases because of the quantum confinement effect, but increases (decreases) slightly with increasing tensile (compressive) stress up to about 12 GPa. The calculated Young's modulus and tensile strength of SiC NWs are about 620 and 52 GPa, respectively, in accordance with the experimental data. The characteristics of their mechanical and electronic properties suggest that betaSiC NWs may be used in electronic composites as reinforcement nanomaterials or in nanoscale electronic/photoelectric devices under harsh environments. (c) 2006 American Institute of Physics.

(2006) Physical Review B. 73, 15, 155432. Abstract
The structural characteristics, bonding modes, and electronic properties of singlecrystalline silicon nanotubes (scSiNTs) are investigated by using the firstprinciples method. These pristine scSiNTs with s p3 hybridization, constructed by the bulklike tetrahedrally coordinated Si atoms, are found to be energetically stable. The electronic property is sensitive to the external diameter, tubewall thickness, and tubeaxis orientation due to quantum confinement effects. A direct band gap is observed in SiNTs with smaller sizes. The band gap increases monotonically with decreasing tubewall thickness, in accord with the substantial blueshift observed in the experiment. It is suggested that this type of SiNTs would have promising practical applications in nanoscale lightemitting devices and electronic devices.