Greenhouse Gases in Israel - GGI

The laboratory of Dan Yakir at the Department of Environmental Sciences and Energy research has conducted long-term measurements of concentrations and fluxes of greenhouse gases since 1995. These measurements center on two programs.

  • The first is background atmospheric concentrations of the main greenhouse gases and isotopic composition of CO2 in the framework of the global network coordinated by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
  • The second is based on an ecosystem flux measurement site in the framework of the global network of ecosystem flux towers (FLUXNET). This network focuses on measuring the fluxes of carbon, water and energy between land ecosystems and the atmosphere.


Background Atmosphere:

  • Carbon Dioxide, CO2, measured in ppm [Graph]
  • Methane, CH4, measured in ppb [Graph]
  • Carbon Monoxide, CO, measured in ppb [Graph]
  • Hydrogen H2, measured in ppb [Graph]
  • Nitrous Oxide N2O, measured in ppb [Graph]
  • Sulfur Hexafluoride. SF6, measured in ppt [Graph]
  • C Isotopic ratio of carbon dioxide, 13C/12C, measured per mil [Graph]
  • O Isotopic ratio of carbon dioxide, 18O/16O, measured per mil [Graph]
  • Carbonyl sulfide, COS, measured in ppt [Graph]
  • Trajectories arriving at site, viewed in computer simulations, measured in pressure [Graph]


NOAA ESRL Carbon Cycle operates 4 measurement programs. Semi-continuous measurements are made at 4 baseline observatories and from tall towers. Discrete surface and aircraft samples are measured in Boulder, CO. Presently, atmospheric carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, the stable isotopes of carbon dioxide and methane, and halocarbon and volatile organic compounds are measured.

Contact: Dr. Pieter Tans, NOAA ESRL Carbon Cycle, Boulder, Colorado, (303) 497-6678,,