Active Microtubule Nematics and Gels

Microtubules-based active fluids exhibit motor-driven non-equilibrium dynamics that mimic some properties of the cellular cytoskeleton. Clusters of ATP-consuming kinesin molecular motors drive the extension of microtubule bundles, which on a larger scale continuously rearrange the 3D network dynamics and drive emerge of spontaneous turbulent-like flows. Being reconstituted from well-defined biochemical components, microtubule-based active fluids provide an opportunity to elucidate the microscopic origins of out-of-equilibrium emergent dynamics.