Our interest is in the shift of chemical and energy related processes from entrenched high temperature catalysis based on fossil fuels to low temperature sustainable catalysis using electricity and light as renewable energy sources. To realize such a paradigm shift, the scientific challenge is to use and activate “inert” small molecules such as nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide in air, and water. Analysis of natural processes such as photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation guide us to the development of unique inorganic catalysts (polyoxometalates) that react using electricity or sunlight.