All events, All years

Experience-dependent genetic and synaptic regulation of stability and plasticity in cortical circuits

Lecture
Date:
Thursday, September 28, 2023
Hour: 11:00 - 12:15
Location:
The David Lopatie Hall of Graduate Studies
Dahlia Kushinsky-Student Seminar PhD Thesis Defense
|
Advisor-Dr. Ivo Spiegel

Neural circuits in the brain must be plastic enough to allow an animal to adapt to and learn from new experiences yet they must also remain functionally stable such that previously learned skills and information are retained. Thus, fundamental questions in neuroscience concern the molecular, cellular, and circuit mechanisms that balance the plasticity and stability of neural circuits. During my studies, I investigated these mechanisms in three studies that focused on sensory- and behavioral state-dependent changes in transcription and GABAergic inhibition in the visual cortex of adult mice. In my Ph.D. defense, I will elaborate on the novel molecular-cellular mechanisms that I discovered in these studies and discuss their role in conveying both plasticity and stability to visual processing and perception.

Understanding spontaneous neuronal activity with neurophotonics

Lecture
Date:
Wednesday, August 30, 2023
Hour: 12:30 - 13:30
Location:
Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Prof. Anna Devor
|
Chief Editor of Neurophotonics SPIE Associate Director, Neurophotonics Center, Boston University

The last decade has seen a rapid advance of neurophotonic technologies, in large part thanks to the BRAIN Initiative as well as other large-scale neuroscience projects in the US and around the world. We now have a large array of diverse experimental and computational tools to study the brain across species, scales, levels of description, in animals and humans. Notably, the lion’s share of these technologies falls under the general umbrella of neurophotonics. This lecture will focus on several microscopic neurophotonic technologies in the context of understanding spontaneous neuronal and neurovascular activity in the mouse cerebral cortex. Among these tools is optically transparent Windansee electrode arrays that can be combined with optical imaging. Combining Windansee recordings with two-photon imaging and biophysical modeling, we show that spontaneous inputs to layer 1 were coded by a selective, sparse sub-population of local neurons. This is in contrast with earlier studies in the same system where each instance of a sensory input activated a different subset of neurons indicating redundancy in coding. Because selective coding by a few “oracle” neurons is nonredundant, we are tempted to speculate that the health of internally generated brain activity may be more vulnerable to damage or disease compared to that in response to external stimuli. Light refreshments before the seminar

Germ-cell migration and fate maintenance in zebrafish

Lecture
Date:
Monday, July 17, 2023
Hour: 10:00 - 11:00
Location:
Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Prof. Erez Raz
|
Institute of Cell Biology University of Munster

Dendritic voltage imaging, excitability rules, and plasticity

Lecture
Date:
Monday, July 10, 2023
Hour: 12:45 - 13:45
Location:
Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Prof. Adam E. Cohen
|
Depts of Chemistry, Chemical Biology and Physics Harvard University

Membrane voltage in dendrites plays a key role in mediating synaptic integration and activity-dependent plasticity; but dendritic voltages have been difficult to measure.  We developed molecular, optical, and computational tools for simultaneous optogenetic perturbations and voltage mapping in dendrites of neurons in acute slices and in awake mice.  These experiments revealed relations between dendritic ion channel biophysics and rules of synaptic integration and plasticity.  I will also describe tools for mapping large-scale network dynamics with millisecond time resolution, and for mapping brain-wide patterns of plasticity.

Toward “reading” and “writing” neural population codes in the primate cortex

Lecture
Date:
Wednesday, July 5, 2023
Hour: 12:30 - 13:30
Location:
Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Prof. Eyal Seidemann
|
Depts. of Psychology and Neuroscience University of Texas at Austin.

: A central goal of sensory neuroscience is to understand the nature of the neural code in sensory cortex to the point where we could “read” the code – i.e., account for a subject’s perceptual capabilities using solely the relevant cortical signals, and “write” the code – i.e., substitute sensory stimuli with direct cortical stimulation that is perceptually equivalent.  Distributed representations and topography are two key properties of primate sensory cortex. For example, in primary visual cortex (V1), a localized stimulus activates millions of V1 neurons that are distributed over multiple mm2, and neurons that are similarly tuned are clustered together at the sub-mm scale and form several overlaid topographic maps. The distributed and topographic nature of V1’s representation raises the possibility that in some visual tasks, the neural code in V1 operates at the topographic scale rather than at the scale of single neurons. If this were the case, then the fundamental unit of information would be clusters of similarly tuned neurons (e.g., orientation columns), and to account for the subjects’ performance, it would be necessary and sufficient to consider the summed activity of the thousands of neurons within each cluster. A long-term goal of my lab is to test the topographic population code hypothesis.  In this presentation, I will describe our progress toward developing a bi-directional, read-write, optical-genetic toolbox for directly testing this hypothesis in behaving macaques.

Chromatin 3D distribution in live muscle nuclei: impacts on epigenetic activation/repression of chromatin

Lecture
Date:
Wednesday, July 5, 2023
Hour: 10:00 - 11:00
Location:
Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Prof. Talila Volk
|
Dept of Molecular Genetics, WIS

Mood temporal dynamics characterized with computational and engineering-based approaches

Lecture
Date:
Tuesday, June 20, 2023
Hour: 11:30 - 12:30
Location:
Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Dr. Hanna Keren
|
The Azrieli Faculty of Medicine Bar-Ilan University

:The non-linearity and variability in individual mood responses pose multiple analytic and experimental challenges. These challenges limit our understanding of mental health disorders with aberrant mood dynamics such as depression, and the development of more effective treatments. Computational approaches can help overcome some of these challenges by creating and modeling individual mood transitions. I will describe a study where closed-loop control approach was used to generate individual mood transitions and then a computational modeling approach was used to characterize the temporal effects on these mood changes. This study showed that early events exert a stronger influence on reported mood compared to recent events (a primacy weighting), in contrary to previous theoretical accounts which assumed that recent events are most influential on mood. This Primacy model accounted better for mood reports compared to a range of alternative temporal representations, in random, consistent, or dynamic reward environments, across different age groups, and in both healthy and depressed participants. Moreover, I will show how this temporal relation between early experiences and mood is mediated by specific neural signals. Interestingly, in repetitive reward environments or resting-state conditions, we found that mood reports consistently decline over time, stressing the importance of accounting for temporal effects in mood responses. These findings hold implications for the timing of events when addressing mood and behavior in experimental and in clinical settings.

Beyond the arcuate fasciculus: A multiplicity of language pathways in the human brain

Lecture
Date:
Tuesday, June 13, 2023
Hour: 12:30 - 13:30
Location:
Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Prof. Michal Ben-Shachar
|
The Gonda Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center Bar-Ilan University

Early models of the neurobiology of language targeted a single white matter pathway, the left arcuate fasciculus, as the critical language pathway in the human brain. Current models, supported by structural and functional imaging data, describe a more elaborate scheme of semi-parallel and bilateral white matter pathways that implement a variety of linguistic processes. In this talk, I will describe our current understanding of the language connectome, and highlight some recent additions to this scheme, including the frontal aslant tract and cerebellar pathways. I will expand on the role of ventral language pathways in extracting word structure, and on the role of dorsal and cerebellar pathways in mediating speech fluency and written text production. Our experimental approach combines diffusion MRI and targeted behavioral measurements, relating specific aspects of language processing with structural tract properties assessed in the same individual. Our findings show that cognitive associations with tractometry generalize across independent samples, languages, modalities and tasks. I will discuss the implications of our findings in the context of dual stream models of spoken and written language processing.

Reprogramming the topology of the nociceptive circuit in C. elegans reshapes sexual behavior

Lecture
Date:
Monday, June 12, 2023
Hour: 11:00 - 12:15
Location:
Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Vladyslava Pechuk
|
Dr. Meital Oren Lab

The effect of the detailed connectivity of a neural circuit on its function and the resulting behavior of the organism, is a key question in many neural systems Here, I study the circuit for nociception in C elegans which is composed of the same neurons in the two sexes, that are wired differently I set out to elucidate how the topological design of a compact neuronal circuit affects its behavioral output, how genetic sex affects the connectivity and dynamics of a circuit, and how specific circuit components orchestrate together to establish the behavioral sexual dimorphism I used behavioral assays, optogenetics calcium and glutamate imaging, measurement of protein expression, artificial connectivity, molecular and genetic tools, and show that the nociceptive sensory neurons respond similarly in the two sexes, yet the animals display sexually dimorphic behaviors to the same aversive stimuli To uncover the role of the downstream network topology in shaping behavior, I measured the neuronal activity of a key interneuron, and found dimorphic responses to the stimulus as well as dimorphic intrinsic basal interneuron activity I then showed that neuron specific genetic sex plays a role in shaping connectivity and circuit dynamics, and proceed to an artificial subtle synaptic rewiring which flips behavior between sexes Interestingly, when presented with aversive cues, rewired males were compromised in finding mating partners, suggesting that network topologies that enable efficient avoidance of noxious cues have a reproductive " My results present a deconstruction of the design of a neural circuit that controls sexual behavior, and how to reprogram it

Local and long-range inputs contributing to sequence generation in the zebra finch

Lecture
Date:
Tuesday, June 6, 2023
Hour: 12:30 - 13:30
Location:
Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Prof. Michael A. Long
|
NYU School of Medicine

: A central question in neuroscience is how local processing and long-range influences work together to create behaviorally relevant neural dynamics. We address this issue by examining the song control pathway in the zebra finch. We find sufficient synaptic information is present in a key cortical structure to enable propagation of song-related sequences. We further demonstrate that long-range inputs from the motor thalamus can engage this circuitry in the service of behavior and large-scale brain synchronization. Our findings suggest that thalamic inputs may play an important initiating role for behaviorally-relevant cortical activity across species.

Pages

All events, All years

Experience-dependent genetic and synaptic regulation of stability and plasticity in cortical circuits

Lecture
Date:
Thursday, September 28, 2023
Hour: 11:00 - 12:15
Location:
The David Lopatie Hall of Graduate Studies
Dahlia Kushinsky-Student Seminar PhD Thesis Defense
|
Advisor-Dr. Ivo Spiegel

Neural circuits in the brain must be plastic enough to allow an animal to adapt to and learn from new experiences yet they must also remain functionally stable such that previously learned skills and information are retained. Thus, fundamental questions in neuroscience concern the molecular, cellular, and circuit mechanisms that balance the plasticity and stability of neural circuits. During my studies, I investigated these mechanisms in three studies that focused on sensory- and behavioral state-dependent changes in transcription and GABAergic inhibition in the visual cortex of adult mice. In my Ph.D. defense, I will elaborate on the novel molecular-cellular mechanisms that I discovered in these studies and discuss their role in conveying both plasticity and stability to visual processing and perception.

Understanding spontaneous neuronal activity with neurophotonics

Lecture
Date:
Wednesday, August 30, 2023
Hour: 12:30 - 13:30
Location:
Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Prof. Anna Devor
|
Chief Editor of Neurophotonics SPIE Associate Director, Neurophotonics Center, Boston University

The last decade has seen a rapid advance of neurophotonic technologies, in large part thanks to the BRAIN Initiative as well as other large-scale neuroscience projects in the US and around the world. We now have a large array of diverse experimental and computational tools to study the brain across species, scales, levels of description, in animals and humans. Notably, the lion’s share of these technologies falls under the general umbrella of neurophotonics. This lecture will focus on several microscopic neurophotonic technologies in the context of understanding spontaneous neuronal and neurovascular activity in the mouse cerebral cortex. Among these tools is optically transparent Windansee electrode arrays that can be combined with optical imaging. Combining Windansee recordings with two-photon imaging and biophysical modeling, we show that spontaneous inputs to layer 1 were coded by a selective, sparse sub-population of local neurons. This is in contrast with earlier studies in the same system where each instance of a sensory input activated a different subset of neurons indicating redundancy in coding. Because selective coding by a few “oracle” neurons is nonredundant, we are tempted to speculate that the health of internally generated brain activity may be more vulnerable to damage or disease compared to that in response to external stimuli. Light refreshments before the seminar

Germ-cell migration and fate maintenance in zebrafish

Lecture
Date:
Monday, July 17, 2023
Hour: 10:00 - 11:00
Location:
Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Prof. Erez Raz
|
Institute of Cell Biology University of Munster

Dendritic voltage imaging, excitability rules, and plasticity

Lecture
Date:
Monday, July 10, 2023
Hour: 12:45 - 13:45
Location:
Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Prof. Adam E. Cohen
|
Depts of Chemistry, Chemical Biology and Physics Harvard University

Membrane voltage in dendrites plays a key role in mediating synaptic integration and activity-dependent plasticity; but dendritic voltages have been difficult to measure.  We developed molecular, optical, and computational tools for simultaneous optogenetic perturbations and voltage mapping in dendrites of neurons in acute slices and in awake mice.  These experiments revealed relations between dendritic ion channel biophysics and rules of synaptic integration and plasticity.  I will also describe tools for mapping large-scale network dynamics with millisecond time resolution, and for mapping brain-wide patterns of plasticity.

Toward “reading” and “writing” neural population codes in the primate cortex

Lecture
Date:
Wednesday, July 5, 2023
Hour: 12:30 - 13:30
Location:
Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Prof. Eyal Seidemann
|
Depts. of Psychology and Neuroscience University of Texas at Austin.

: A central goal of sensory neuroscience is to understand the nature of the neural code in sensory cortex to the point where we could “read” the code – i.e., account for a subject’s perceptual capabilities using solely the relevant cortical signals, and “write” the code – i.e., substitute sensory stimuli with direct cortical stimulation that is perceptually equivalent.  Distributed representations and topography are two key properties of primate sensory cortex. For example, in primary visual cortex (V1), a localized stimulus activates millions of V1 neurons that are distributed over multiple mm2, and neurons that are similarly tuned are clustered together at the sub-mm scale and form several overlaid topographic maps. The distributed and topographic nature of V1’s representation raises the possibility that in some visual tasks, the neural code in V1 operates at the topographic scale rather than at the scale of single neurons. If this were the case, then the fundamental unit of information would be clusters of similarly tuned neurons (e.g., orientation columns), and to account for the subjects’ performance, it would be necessary and sufficient to consider the summed activity of the thousands of neurons within each cluster. A long-term goal of my lab is to test the topographic population code hypothesis.  In this presentation, I will describe our progress toward developing a bi-directional, read-write, optical-genetic toolbox for directly testing this hypothesis in behaving macaques.

Chromatin 3D distribution in live muscle nuclei: impacts on epigenetic activation/repression of chromatin

Lecture
Date:
Wednesday, July 5, 2023
Hour: 10:00 - 11:00
Location:
Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Prof. Talila Volk
|
Dept of Molecular Genetics, WIS

Mood temporal dynamics characterized with computational and engineering-based approaches

Lecture
Date:
Tuesday, June 20, 2023
Hour: 11:30 - 12:30
Location:
Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Dr. Hanna Keren
|
The Azrieli Faculty of Medicine Bar-Ilan University

:The non-linearity and variability in individual mood responses pose multiple analytic and experimental challenges. These challenges limit our understanding of mental health disorders with aberrant mood dynamics such as depression, and the development of more effective treatments. Computational approaches can help overcome some of these challenges by creating and modeling individual mood transitions. I will describe a study where closed-loop control approach was used to generate individual mood transitions and then a computational modeling approach was used to characterize the temporal effects on these mood changes. This study showed that early events exert a stronger influence on reported mood compared to recent events (a primacy weighting), in contrary to previous theoretical accounts which assumed that recent events are most influential on mood. This Primacy model accounted better for mood reports compared to a range of alternative temporal representations, in random, consistent, or dynamic reward environments, across different age groups, and in both healthy and depressed participants. Moreover, I will show how this temporal relation between early experiences and mood is mediated by specific neural signals. Interestingly, in repetitive reward environments or resting-state conditions, we found that mood reports consistently decline over time, stressing the importance of accounting for temporal effects in mood responses. These findings hold implications for the timing of events when addressing mood and behavior in experimental and in clinical settings.

Beyond the arcuate fasciculus: A multiplicity of language pathways in the human brain

Lecture
Date:
Tuesday, June 13, 2023
Hour: 12:30 - 13:30
Location:
Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Prof. Michal Ben-Shachar
|
The Gonda Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center Bar-Ilan University

Early models of the neurobiology of language targeted a single white matter pathway, the left arcuate fasciculus, as the critical language pathway in the human brain. Current models, supported by structural and functional imaging data, describe a more elaborate scheme of semi-parallel and bilateral white matter pathways that implement a variety of linguistic processes. In this talk, I will describe our current understanding of the language connectome, and highlight some recent additions to this scheme, including the frontal aslant tract and cerebellar pathways. I will expand on the role of ventral language pathways in extracting word structure, and on the role of dorsal and cerebellar pathways in mediating speech fluency and written text production. Our experimental approach combines diffusion MRI and targeted behavioral measurements, relating specific aspects of language processing with structural tract properties assessed in the same individual. Our findings show that cognitive associations with tractometry generalize across independent samples, languages, modalities and tasks. I will discuss the implications of our findings in the context of dual stream models of spoken and written language processing.

Reprogramming the topology of the nociceptive circuit in C. elegans reshapes sexual behavior

Lecture
Date:
Monday, June 12, 2023
Hour: 11:00 - 12:15
Location:
Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Vladyslava Pechuk
|
Dr. Meital Oren Lab

The effect of the detailed connectivity of a neural circuit on its function and the resulting behavior of the organism, is a key question in many neural systems Here, I study the circuit for nociception in C elegans which is composed of the same neurons in the two sexes, that are wired differently I set out to elucidate how the topological design of a compact neuronal circuit affects its behavioral output, how genetic sex affects the connectivity and dynamics of a circuit, and how specific circuit components orchestrate together to establish the behavioral sexual dimorphism I used behavioral assays, optogenetics calcium and glutamate imaging, measurement of protein expression, artificial connectivity, molecular and genetic tools, and show that the nociceptive sensory neurons respond similarly in the two sexes, yet the animals display sexually dimorphic behaviors to the same aversive stimuli To uncover the role of the downstream network topology in shaping behavior, I measured the neuronal activity of a key interneuron, and found dimorphic responses to the stimulus as well as dimorphic intrinsic basal interneuron activity I then showed that neuron specific genetic sex plays a role in shaping connectivity and circuit dynamics, and proceed to an artificial subtle synaptic rewiring which flips behavior between sexes Interestingly, when presented with aversive cues, rewired males were compromised in finding mating partners, suggesting that network topologies that enable efficient avoidance of noxious cues have a reproductive " My results present a deconstruction of the design of a neural circuit that controls sexual behavior, and how to reprogram it

Local and long-range inputs contributing to sequence generation in the zebra finch

Lecture
Date:
Tuesday, June 6, 2023
Hour: 12:30 - 13:30
Location:
Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Prof. Michael A. Long
|
NYU School of Medicine

: A central question in neuroscience is how local processing and long-range influences work together to create behaviorally relevant neural dynamics. We address this issue by examining the song control pathway in the zebra finch. We find sufficient synaptic information is present in a key cortical structure to enable propagation of song-related sequences. We further demonstrate that long-range inputs from the motor thalamus can engage this circuitry in the service of behavior and large-scale brain synchronization. Our findings suggest that thalamic inputs may play an important initiating role for behaviorally-relevant cortical activity across species.

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All events, All years

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Challenges and Debates at the Frontiers of Brain&Cognition

Conference
Date:
Wednesday, December 25, 2013
Hour: 08:00 - 17:00
Location:
The David Lopatie Conference Centre

Optogenetics: from cells to circuits and behavior

Conference
Date:
Sunday, July 14, 2013
Hour: 08:00 - 18:00
Location:
The David Lopatie Conference Centre

Homepage

WIS-Australia Symposium on Metabolic Syndroms

Conference
Date:
Sunday, May 12, 2013
Hour: 08:00 - 16:45
Location:
The David Lopatie Conference Centre

Emotional memories and stress: from normal physiology to psychopathology

Conference
Date:
Thursday, April 25, 2013
Hour:
Location:
The David Lopatie Conference Centre

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Brain Sciences open day

Conference
Date:
Thursday, February 7, 2013
Hour: 12:30 - 16:00
Location:
The David Lopatie Conference Centre

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Inflammation: A friend & a foe

Conference
Date:
Sunday, February 3, 2013
Hour: 08:00 - 20:00
Location:
The David Lopatie Conference Centre

Homepage

Aging of the Mind:Immunity in the middle of mind/body relationship

Conference
Date:
Monday, December 3, 2012
Hour:
Location:
The David Lopatie Conference Centre

Homepage

Optogenetics symposium

Conference
Date:
Saturday, July 14, 2012
Hour:
Location:
The David Lopatie Conference Centre

90th Birthday Meeting for Prof. David Samuel

Conference
Date:
Thursday, June 28, 2012
Hour:
Location:
Michael Sela Auditorium

Homepage

Brain Sciences Open Day

Conference
Date:
Wednesday, March 7, 2012
Hour:
Location:
The David Lopatie Conference Centre

Homepage

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