All events, All years

Navigation in larval zebrafish:strategies and internal representations

Lecture
Date:
Monday, April 3, 2023
Hour: 12:45 - 13:30
Location:
Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Prof. Ruben Portugues
|
Technical University of Munich

Larval zebrafish can navigate their environment and seek conditions that meet their physiological needs. We refer to this process as homeostatic navigation. We use careful behavioral analysis, whole-brain imaging, and neuronal perturbations to identify the behavioral strategy and the neuronal circuitry that underlie this important behavior. In addition, I will recap recent studies from our lab, involving perceptual decision making and the identification of a heading direction network, that all together, provide insights into how the brain of this small vertebrate controls behavior across these various paradigms.

The neurobiological function of experience-regulated genomic enhancers From transcriptional mechanisms to control over synaptic plasticity and sensory processing

Lecture
Date:
Monday, March 20, 2023
Hour: 14:45 - 15:45
Location:
Max and Lillian Candiotty Building
Ori Roethler Dr. Ivo Spiegel Lab
|
Student Seminar-PhD Thesis Defense

The brain consists of a mosaic of distinct cell-types with unique activity-regulated gene programs that can drive long-lasting changes in the function and structure of developing and matured neural circuits. However, the molecular mechanisms in specific neuronal subtypes underlying these cellular/circuit changes remain poorly understood and techniques for studying these molecular mechanisms in specific cell populations are still lacking. Genomic enhancers are thought to modulate specific sets of synapses by regulating experience-induced and cell-type specific transcription of genes that promote neural circuit plasticity. Nevertheless, this idea remains untested. Thus, here I set out to investigate the genomic mechanisms that control the experience-induced transcription of the Insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) in disinhibitory VIP interneurons (INs) in the adult visual cortex and the cellular and circuit functions they underly. I found two cell-type specific sensory-induced enhancers that selectively drive sensory-induced Igf1 transcription. These enhancers homeostatically control the ratio between excitation and inhibition (E/I-ratio), thereby restricting the activity of VIP INs and preserving the response properties to visual stimuli.

Neuronal activity and noise in synaptic wiring specificity

Lecture
Date:
Thursday, March 16, 2023
Hour: 10:30 - 13:30
Location:
Nella and Leon Benoziyo Building for Brain Research
Dr. Laura Andreae
|
MRC Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders King’s College London

The role of neuronal activity in the development of neurons and circuits remains controversial. Historically, activity has been seen to be critical for the sculpting of connectivity patterns after the period of synapse formation, often pruning unused synapses and helping to maintain or grow active ones. We now have evidence that a specific type of activity, spontaneous transmitter release, in the past often regarded as simply 'noise', plays a role in synapse formation and the development of dendritic morphology at early stages in the developmental period. Using both in vitro and in vivo approaches in mice to manipulate spontaneous transmitter release and the postsynaptic receptors that detect it, we show that these effects are connection specific in the developing hippocampal circuit. Many of the key synaptic proteins involved are known to be mutated in severe neurodevelopmental disorders, indicating how important these early roles may be in healthy brain development.

Deciphering integration of contradictory signals in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

Lecture
Date:
Wednesday, March 1, 2023
Hour: 10:00 - 11:00
Location:
Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Dr. Yaron Antebi
|
Dept of Molecular Genetics

Horizontal cells of the vertebrate retina – From channels to functions

Lecture
Date:
Tuesday, February 28, 2023
Hour: 12:30 - 13:30
Location:
Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Prof. Andreas Feigenspan
|
Dept of Biology, Division of Animal Physiology Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg

Visual information is transferred at the ribbon synapse – the first synapse of the visual system – from photoreceptors to bipolar cells and horizontal cells. Whereas multiple bipolar cell types form parallel channels of vertical signal transfer to ganglion cells, the output neurons of the retina, the molecular basis of horizontal function within the retinal circuitry remains enigmatic. We have combined electrophysiology and calcium imaging with immunocytochemistry as well as single-cell RNA-sequencing and machine-learning approaches to establish a detailed map of voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels expressed by horizontal cells of the vertebrate retina. Our results provide a characteristic molecular signature of ionotropic glutamate receptors responsible for converting photoreceptor signals into postsynaptic membrane potential changes. We suggest that local information processing in horizontal cell dendrites is accompanied by cell-wide signals mediated by activation of voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels, which generate spike-like events. Comparison across different vertebrate species indicates a common theme of ion channel expression with variations based on evolutionary distance. Correlating the spatio-temporal pattern of horizontal cell activity with the biophysical properties of ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors will provide a better understanding of early signal processing in the vertebrate retina.

Sensory processing in the whisker system of awake, behaving mice

Lecture
Date:
Monday, February 27, 2023
Hour: 14:30
Location:
Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Prof. Rasmus Petersen
|
Division of Neuroscience University of Manchester UK

The ultimate purpose of sensory systems is to drive behaviour.  Yet the bulk of textbook knowledge of sensory systems comes from experiments on anaesthetised animals where the motor systems are disengaged.  The broad aim of our research is to investigate the neural basis of sensation in the behaving brain.  In this talk, I will present work that addresses two fundamental issues concerning the function of primary sensory cortex.  First, what role does Sensory Adaptation play under awake, behaving conditions?  Second, to what extent does behaviour modulate sensory processing in freely moving animals?

How the brain transforms sensory input into action

Lecture
Date:
Tuesday, February 21, 2023
Hour: 12:30 - 13:30
Location:
Prof. Tom Mrsic-Flogel
|
Sainsbury Wellcome Centre, University College London, UK

Cerebral Cortex Connectomics

Lecture
Date:
Tuesday, February 14, 2023
Hour: 12:30 - 13:30
Location:
Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Prof. Moritz Helmstaedter
|
Dept of Connectomics Max Planck Institute for Brain Research Frankfurt

Dept of Connectomics Max Planck Institute for Brain Research Frankfurt

Mapping brainstem nuclei structure and connectivity in health and disease 

Lecture
Date:
Tuesday, February 7, 2023
Hour: 12:30 - 13:30
Location:
Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Dr. Marta Bianciardi
|
Radiology, Harvard Medical School Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, MGH

Brainstem nuclei in humans play a crucial role in vital functions, such as arousal, autonomic homeostasis, sensory and motor relay, nociception, and sleep and have been implicated in a vast array of brain pathologies, including disorders of consciousness, sleep disorders, autonomic disorders, pain, Parkinson’s disease and other motor disorders. Yet, an in vivo delineation of most human brainstem nuclei location and connectivity using conventional imaging has been elusive because of limited sensitivity and contrast for detecting these small regions using standard neuroimaging methods. In this talk, Dr. Bianciardi will present the probabilistic atlas and connectome of 31 brainstem nuclei of the arousal, motor, autonomic and sensory systems developed by her team in healthy living humans using structural, functional and diffusion-based MRI at 7 Tesla. She will also show the translatability of 7 Tesla connectivity results to conventional 3 Tesla imaging. Dr Bianciardi will conclude her seminar by presenting the first translational application of the brainstem nuclei atlas to investigate arousal and motor mechanisms in traumatic coma and premanifest synucleinopathy.

Active vision and vision for action

Lecture
Date:
Thursday, February 2, 2023
Hour: 12:30 - 13:30
Location:
Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Prof. Daniel Kerschensteiner
|
Washington University School of Medicine St. Louis

 Vision is an active sense in which an animal's gaze and pupil shape the content of the retinal image. In the first part of my talk, I will discuss how the viewing strategies of mice align with the neural architecture of their visual system to accomplish an essential visual task: predation. In the second part of my talk, I will compare the hunting behavior of mice to that of a specialized predator, similar in size but distant in evolution, and present our initial insights into the organization of visual information in this animal. Finally, I will present ongoing work indicating that the pupillary reflex arc implements a more complex stimulus-response function than previously thought. I will discuss the underlying neural mechanisms and potential purpose and show conservation from mice to humans. 

Pages

All events, All years

Navigation in larval zebrafish:strategies and internal representations

Lecture
Date:
Monday, April 3, 2023
Hour: 12:45 - 13:30
Location:
Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Prof. Ruben Portugues
|
Technical University of Munich

Larval zebrafish can navigate their environment and seek conditions that meet their physiological needs. We refer to this process as homeostatic navigation. We use careful behavioral analysis, whole-brain imaging, and neuronal perturbations to identify the behavioral strategy and the neuronal circuitry that underlie this important behavior. In addition, I will recap recent studies from our lab, involving perceptual decision making and the identification of a heading direction network, that all together, provide insights into how the brain of this small vertebrate controls behavior across these various paradigms.

The neurobiological function of experience-regulated genomic enhancers From transcriptional mechanisms to control over synaptic plasticity and sensory processing

Lecture
Date:
Monday, March 20, 2023
Hour: 14:45 - 15:45
Location:
Max and Lillian Candiotty Building
Ori Roethler Dr. Ivo Spiegel Lab
|
Student Seminar-PhD Thesis Defense

The brain consists of a mosaic of distinct cell-types with unique activity-regulated gene programs that can drive long-lasting changes in the function and structure of developing and matured neural circuits. However, the molecular mechanisms in specific neuronal subtypes underlying these cellular/circuit changes remain poorly understood and techniques for studying these molecular mechanisms in specific cell populations are still lacking. Genomic enhancers are thought to modulate specific sets of synapses by regulating experience-induced and cell-type specific transcription of genes that promote neural circuit plasticity. Nevertheless, this idea remains untested. Thus, here I set out to investigate the genomic mechanisms that control the experience-induced transcription of the Insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) in disinhibitory VIP interneurons (INs) in the adult visual cortex and the cellular and circuit functions they underly. I found two cell-type specific sensory-induced enhancers that selectively drive sensory-induced Igf1 transcription. These enhancers homeostatically control the ratio between excitation and inhibition (E/I-ratio), thereby restricting the activity of VIP INs and preserving the response properties to visual stimuli.

Neuronal activity and noise in synaptic wiring specificity

Lecture
Date:
Thursday, March 16, 2023
Hour: 10:30 - 13:30
Location:
Nella and Leon Benoziyo Building for Brain Research
Dr. Laura Andreae
|
MRC Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders King’s College London

The role of neuronal activity in the development of neurons and circuits remains controversial. Historically, activity has been seen to be critical for the sculpting of connectivity patterns after the period of synapse formation, often pruning unused synapses and helping to maintain or grow active ones. We now have evidence that a specific type of activity, spontaneous transmitter release, in the past often regarded as simply 'noise', plays a role in synapse formation and the development of dendritic morphology at early stages in the developmental period. Using both in vitro and in vivo approaches in mice to manipulate spontaneous transmitter release and the postsynaptic receptors that detect it, we show that these effects are connection specific in the developing hippocampal circuit. Many of the key synaptic proteins involved are known to be mutated in severe neurodevelopmental disorders, indicating how important these early roles may be in healthy brain development.

Deciphering integration of contradictory signals in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

Lecture
Date:
Wednesday, March 1, 2023
Hour: 10:00 - 11:00
Location:
Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Dr. Yaron Antebi
|
Dept of Molecular Genetics

Horizontal cells of the vertebrate retina – From channels to functions

Lecture
Date:
Tuesday, February 28, 2023
Hour: 12:30 - 13:30
Location:
Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Prof. Andreas Feigenspan
|
Dept of Biology, Division of Animal Physiology Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg

Visual information is transferred at the ribbon synapse – the first synapse of the visual system – from photoreceptors to bipolar cells and horizontal cells. Whereas multiple bipolar cell types form parallel channels of vertical signal transfer to ganglion cells, the output neurons of the retina, the molecular basis of horizontal function within the retinal circuitry remains enigmatic. We have combined electrophysiology and calcium imaging with immunocytochemistry as well as single-cell RNA-sequencing and machine-learning approaches to establish a detailed map of voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels expressed by horizontal cells of the vertebrate retina. Our results provide a characteristic molecular signature of ionotropic glutamate receptors responsible for converting photoreceptor signals into postsynaptic membrane potential changes. We suggest that local information processing in horizontal cell dendrites is accompanied by cell-wide signals mediated by activation of voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels, which generate spike-like events. Comparison across different vertebrate species indicates a common theme of ion channel expression with variations based on evolutionary distance. Correlating the spatio-temporal pattern of horizontal cell activity with the biophysical properties of ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors will provide a better understanding of early signal processing in the vertebrate retina.

Sensory processing in the whisker system of awake, behaving mice

Lecture
Date:
Monday, February 27, 2023
Hour: 14:30
Location:
Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Prof. Rasmus Petersen
|
Division of Neuroscience University of Manchester UK

The ultimate purpose of sensory systems is to drive behaviour.  Yet the bulk of textbook knowledge of sensory systems comes from experiments on anaesthetised animals where the motor systems are disengaged.  The broad aim of our research is to investigate the neural basis of sensation in the behaving brain.  In this talk, I will present work that addresses two fundamental issues concerning the function of primary sensory cortex.  First, what role does Sensory Adaptation play under awake, behaving conditions?  Second, to what extent does behaviour modulate sensory processing in freely moving animals?

How the brain transforms sensory input into action

Lecture
Date:
Tuesday, February 21, 2023
Hour: 12:30 - 13:30
Location:
Prof. Tom Mrsic-Flogel
|
Sainsbury Wellcome Centre, University College London, UK

Cerebral Cortex Connectomics

Lecture
Date:
Tuesday, February 14, 2023
Hour: 12:30 - 13:30
Location:
Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Prof. Moritz Helmstaedter
|
Dept of Connectomics Max Planck Institute for Brain Research Frankfurt

Dept of Connectomics Max Planck Institute for Brain Research Frankfurt

Mapping brainstem nuclei structure and connectivity in health and disease 

Lecture
Date:
Tuesday, February 7, 2023
Hour: 12:30 - 13:30
Location:
Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Dr. Marta Bianciardi
|
Radiology, Harvard Medical School Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, MGH

Brainstem nuclei in humans play a crucial role in vital functions, such as arousal, autonomic homeostasis, sensory and motor relay, nociception, and sleep and have been implicated in a vast array of brain pathologies, including disorders of consciousness, sleep disorders, autonomic disorders, pain, Parkinson’s disease and other motor disorders. Yet, an in vivo delineation of most human brainstem nuclei location and connectivity using conventional imaging has been elusive because of limited sensitivity and contrast for detecting these small regions using standard neuroimaging methods. In this talk, Dr. Bianciardi will present the probabilistic atlas and connectome of 31 brainstem nuclei of the arousal, motor, autonomic and sensory systems developed by her team in healthy living humans using structural, functional and diffusion-based MRI at 7 Tesla. She will also show the translatability of 7 Tesla connectivity results to conventional 3 Tesla imaging. Dr Bianciardi will conclude her seminar by presenting the first translational application of the brainstem nuclei atlas to investigate arousal and motor mechanisms in traumatic coma and premanifest synucleinopathy.

Active vision and vision for action

Lecture
Date:
Thursday, February 2, 2023
Hour: 12:30 - 13:30
Location:
Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Prof. Daniel Kerschensteiner
|
Washington University School of Medicine St. Louis

 Vision is an active sense in which an animal's gaze and pupil shape the content of the retinal image. In the first part of my talk, I will discuss how the viewing strategies of mice align with the neural architecture of their visual system to accomplish an essential visual task: predation. In the second part of my talk, I will compare the hunting behavior of mice to that of a specialized predator, similar in size but distant in evolution, and present our initial insights into the organization of visual information in this animal. Finally, I will present ongoing work indicating that the pupillary reflex arc implements a more complex stimulus-response function than previously thought. I will discuss the underlying neural mechanisms and potential purpose and show conservation from mice to humans. 

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Benoziyo Center for Neurological Diseases-Third Annual Symposium

Conference
Date:
Sunday, September 9, 2007
Hour:
Location:

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Brain functions: from basic research to clinical applications

Conference
Date:
Monday, March 12, 2007
Hour:
Location:

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